Published online by Cambridge University Press: 21 June 2016
Strongyloides stercoralis is a common nematode causing helminthic infections in humans. Strongyloidiasis is principally distributed in the tropics and subtropics. In the United States, a prevalence of 0.4% to 4% has been estimated in southeastern states. Like many other parasitic infections, strongyloidiasis most often is asymptomatic unless the patient becomes immunosuppressed. Immunosuppression can lead to an overwhelming autoinfection, which is highly fatal. This hyperinfection often occurs in hospitalized patients and may be confused with other nosocomial infections. This report will review the salient aspects of strongyloidiasis.