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A Novel Risk Factor Associated With Colonization by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Addition to Antimicrobial Treatment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 September 2016

Vincent C. C. Cheng
Affiliation:
Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China Infection Control Team, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Jonathan H. K. Chen
Affiliation:
Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Simon Y. C. So
Affiliation:
Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Sally C. Y. Wong
Affiliation:
Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Pui-Hing Chau
Affiliation:
School of Nursing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Lisa M. W. Wong
Affiliation:
Infection Control Team, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Radley H. C. Ching
Affiliation:
Infection Control Team, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Modissa M. L. Ng
Affiliation:
Infection Control Team, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Wan-Mui Lee
Affiliation:
Infection Control Team, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Ivan F. N. Hung
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Pak-Leung Ho
Affiliation:
Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Kwok-Yung Yuen
Affiliation:
Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To study the association between gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).

METHODS

We analyzed 31,526 patients with prospective collection of fecal specimens for CPE screening: upon admission (targeted screening) and during hospitalization (opportunistic screening, safety net screening, and extensive contact tracing), in our healthcare network with 3,200 beds from July 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015. Specimens were collected at least once weekly during hospitalization for CPE carriers and subjected to broth enrichment culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS

Of 66,672 fecal specimens collected, 345 specimens (0.5%) from 100 patients (0.3%) had CPE. The number and prevalence (per 100,000 patient-days) of CPE increased from 2 (0.3) in 2012 to 63 (8.0) in 2015 (P<.001). Male sex (odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.15–3.18], P=.013), presence of wound or drain (3.12 [1.70–5.71], P<.001), and use of cephalosporins (3.06 [1.42–6.59], P=.004), carbapenems (2.21 [1.10–4.48], P=.027), and PPIs (2.84 [1.72–4.71], P<.001) in the preceding 6 months were significant risk factors by multivariable analysis. Of 79 patients with serial fecal specimens, spontaneous clearance of CPE was noted in 57 (72.2%), with a median (range) of 30 (3–411) days. Comparing patients without use of antibiotics and PPIs, consumption of both antibiotics and PPIs after CPE identification was associated with later clearance of CPE (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17–0.73], P=.005).

CONCLUSIONS

Concomitant use of antibiotics and PPIs prolonged duration of gastrointestinal colonization by CPE.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1418–1425

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
© 2016 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved 

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