Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-prt4h Total loading time: 3 Render date: 2021-10-25T08:25:15.624Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Guideline for Infection Control in Healthcare Personnel, 1998

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2015

Elizabeth A. Bolyard
National Center for Infectious Diseases
Ofelia C. Tablan
National Center for Infectious Diseases
Walter W. Williams
National Immunization Program
Michele L. Pearson
National Center for Infectious Diseases
Craig N. Shapiro
National Center for Infectious Diseases
Scott D. Deitchman
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health


This guideline updates and replaces the previous edition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) “Guideline for Infection Control in Hospital Personnel,” published in 1983. The revised guideline, designed to provide methods for reducing the transmission of infections from patients to healthcare personnel and from personnel to patients, also provides an overview of the evidence for recommendations considered prudent by consensus of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee members. A working draft of this guideline was also reviewed by experts in infection control, occupational health, and infectious diseases; however, all recommendations contained in the guideline may not reflect the opinion of all reviewers.

Special Report
Copyright © The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1.Sepkowitz, KA. Occupationally acquired infections in health care workers. Part I. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:826834.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2.Sepkowitz, KA. Occupationally acquired infections in health care workers Part II. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:917928.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3.Garner, JS, Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:5380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4.Williams, WW. CDC guideline for infection control in hospital personnel. Infect Control 1983;4(suppl):326349.Google Scholar
5.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes for Health. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 3rd ed. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1993.Google ScholarPubMed
6.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Protection of laboratory workers from infectious disease transmitted by blood, body fluids, and tissue: tentative guideline. NCCLS Document M29- T2. Villanova, PA: NCCLS; 1991;11(14):1214.Google Scholar
7.Heseltine, PNR, Ripper, M, Wohlford, P. Nosocomial rubella—consequences of an outbreak and efficacy of a mandatory immunization program. Infect Control 1985;6:371374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.Centers for Disease Control. Update on adult immunization: recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1991;40(RR-12):194.Google Scholar
9.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization of healthcare workers: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR 1997;46(RR-18):142.Google Scholar
10.Centers for Disease Control. Protection against viral hepatitis: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1990;39(RR-2):127.Google Scholar
11.Centers for Disease Control. Measles prevention: recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1989;38(S-9):118.Google Scholar
12.Centers for Disease Control. Mumps prevention: recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1989;38:388–392, 397400.Google Scholar
13.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1996;45(RR-11):136.Google Scholar
14.Centers for Disease Control. Rubella prevention: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1990;39(RR-15):118.Google Scholar
15.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Control and prevention of meningococcal disease and control and prevention of serogroup C meningococcal disease: evaluation and management of suspected outbreaks: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1997;46(RR-5):121.Google Scholar
16.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: vaccine side effects, adverse reactions, contraindications, and precautions: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1996;45(RR-12):135.Google Scholar
17.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1997;46(RR-9):125.Google Scholar
18.Centers for Disease Control. Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1991;40(RR-14):110.Google Scholar
19.Centers for Disease Control. Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis: recommendations for vaccine use and other preventive measures—recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1991;40(RR-10):128.Google Scholar
20.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of pneumococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1997;46(RR-8):124.Google Scholar
21.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Poliomyelitis prevention in the United States: introduction of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1997;46(RR-3):125.Google Scholar
22.Centers for Disease Control. Rabies prevention—United States, 1991: recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1991;40(RR-3):119.Google Scholar
23.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): use of vaccines and immune globulins in persons with altered immunocompe- tence. MMWR 1993;42(RR-4):118.Google Scholar
24.American College of Physicians Task Force on Adult Immunization and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guide for Adult Immunization. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians; 1994.Google ScholarPubMed
25.Herwaldt, LA, Pottinger, JM, Carter, CD, Barr, BA, Miller, ED. Exposure workups. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:850871.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26.US Department of Labor, Occupational Health and Safety Administration. Record keeping guidelines for occupational injuries and illnesses: the occupational safety and health act of 1970 and 29 CFR 1904. OMB no. 120-0029. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor; 1986.Google Scholar
27.US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens; final rule. CFR part 1910.1030. Federal Register 1991;56:6400464182.Google Scholar
28.US Department of Labor, Occupational Health and Safety Administration. Criteria for recording on OSHA form 200. OSHA instruction 1993; standard 1904. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor; 1993.Google Scholar
29.US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Enforcement procedures and scheduling for occupational exposure to tuberculosis. OSHA instruction 1996; CPL 2.106. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor; 1996.Google Scholar
30.Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings. MMWR 1987;36(2S):1S18S.Google ScholarPubMed
31.Centers for Disease Control. Update: Universal Precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. MMWR 1988;37:377-382, 387388.Google ScholarPubMed
32.Centers for Disease Control. Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. MMWR 1989;38(S-6):136.Google ScholarPubMed
33.Centers for Disease Control. Public Health Service statement on management of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus, including considerations regarding zidovudine postexposure use. MMWR 1990;39(RR-1):114.Google ScholarPubMed
34.Centers for Disease Control. Public Health Service inter-agency guidelines for screening donors of blood, plasma, organs, tissues, and semen for evidence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. MMWR 1991;40(RR-4):117.Google ScholarPubMed
35.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended infection-control practices for dentistry, 1993. MMWR 1993;41(RR-8):112.Google Scholar
36.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human immunodeficiency virus transmission in household settings—United States. MMWR 1994;43:347, 353356.Google ScholarPubMed
37.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for follow-up of health-care workers after occupational exposure to hepatitis C virus. MMWR 1997;46:603606.Google ScholarPubMed
38.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes for Health. Agent summary statement: retroviruses, including human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. In: Richmond, JY, McKinney, RW, eds. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1993:116121.Google Scholar
39.Centers for Disease Control. Occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infections in laboratories producing virus concentrates in large quantities: conclusions and recommendations of an expert team convened by the director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). MMWR 1988;37(S-4):1922.Google Scholar
40.Centers for Disease Control. Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1991;40(RR-13):125.Google Scholar
41.Bolyard, EA, Bell, DM. Universal Precautions in the health care setting. In: Devita, VT, Hellman, S, Rosenberg, SA, eds. AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1997:655664.Google Scholar
42.Benson, JS. FDA safety alert: needlestick and other risks from hypodermic needles on secondary IV administration sets—piggyback and intermittent IV. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration; 04 16, 1992.Google Scholar
43.Rhodes, RS, Bell, DM, eds. Prevention of transmission of bloodborne pathogens. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:10471217.Google Scholar
44.Short, LJ, Benson, DR. Special considerations for surgeons. In: Devita, VT, Hellman, H, Rosenberg, SA, eds. AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1997: 665673.Google Scholar
45.Cardo, DM, Culver, DH, Ciesielski, C, Srivastava, PU, Marcus, R, Abite-boul, D, et al.A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. N Engl J Med 1997;337:14851490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
46.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of safety devices for preventing percutaneous injuries among health-care workers during phlebotomy procedures—Minneapolis-St. Paul, New York City, and San Francisco, 1993-1995. MMWR 1997;46:2125.Google ScholarPubMed
47.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of blunt suture needles in preventing percutaneous injuries among healthcare workers during gynecologic surgical procedures—New York City, March 1993-June 1994. MMWR 1997;46:2529.Google Scholar
48.Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to patients during exposure-prone invasive procedures. MMWR 1991;40(RR-8):19.Google ScholarPubMed
49.Thomas, DL, Factor, SH, Kelen, GD, Washington, AS, Taylor, E Jr, Quinn, TC. Viral hepatitis in health care personnel at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: the seroprevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:17051712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
50.Dienstag, JL, Ryan, DM. Occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus in hospital personnel: infection or immunization? Am J Epidemiol 1982;115:2639.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51.Shapiro, CN, Tokars, JI, Chamberland, ME, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Serosurvey Study Committee. Use of the hepatitis B vaccine and infection with hepatitis B and C among orthopaedic surgeons. J Bone Joint Surg 1996;78A:17911800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
52.Gibas, A, Blewett, DR, Schoenfield, DA, Dienstag, JL. Prevalence and incidence of viral hepatitis in health workers in the prehepatitis B vaccination era. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:603610.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
53.Hadler, SC, Doto, IL, Maynard, JE, Smith, J, Clark, B, Mosley, J, et al.Occupational risk of hepatitis B infection in hospital workers. Infect Control 1985;6:2431.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54.Shapiro, CN. Occupational risk of infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:10471056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
55.Moyer, LA, Alter, MJ, Favero, MS. Hemodialysis-associated hepatitis B: revised recommendations for serologic screening. Semin Dialysis 1990;3:201204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
56.Hadler, SC, Margolis, HS. Hepatitis B immunization: vaccine types, efficacy, and indications for immunization. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 1992;12:282308.Google ScholarPubMed
57.Wainwright, RB, Bulkow, LR, Parkinson, AJ, Zanis, C, McMahon, BJ. Protection provided by hepatitis B vaccine in a Yupik Eskimo population—results of a 10-year study. J Infect Dis 1997;175:674677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
58.Alter, MJ, Coleman, PJ, Alexander, WJ, Kramer, E, Miller, JK, Mandel, E, et al.Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. JAMA 1989;262:12011205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
59.Alter, MJ. The detection, transmission, and outcome of hepatitis C virus infection. Infect Agents Dis 1993;2:155166.Google ScholarPubMed
60.Alter, MJ, Gerety, RJ, Smallwood, LA, Sampliner, RE, Tabor, E, Deinhardt, F, et al.Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis: frequency and epidemiology in an urban United States population. J Infect Dis 1982;145:886893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
61.Polish, LB, Tong, MJ, Co, RL, Coleman, PJ, Alter, MJ. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among health care personnel in a community hospital. Am J Infect Control 1993;21:196200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
62.Cooper, BW, Krusell, A, Tilton, RC, Goodwin, R, Levitz, RE. Seropreva-lence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in high-risk hospital personnel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:8285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
63.Panlilio, AL, Shapiro, CN, Schable, CA, Mendelson, MH, Montecalvo, MA, Kunches, LM, et al.Serosurvey of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infection among hospi tal-based surgeons. J Am Coll Surg 1995;180:1624.Google Scholar
64.Nishimura, Y, Yamaguchi, K, Williams, NP, Takatsuki, K. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Japanese blood donors and in hospital personnel. Transfusion 1990;30:667668.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
65.Herbert, AM, Walker, DM, Kavies, KJ, Bagg, J. Occupationally acquired hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet 1992;339:305. Letter.Google ScholarPubMed
66.Tsude, K, Fujiyama, S, Sato, S, Kawano, S, Taura, Y, Yoshida, K, et al.Two cases of accidental transmission of hepatitis C to medical staff. Hepatogastroenterology 1992;39:7375.Google ScholarPubMed
67.Zuckerman, J, Clewley, G, Griffiths, P, Cockcroft, A. Prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies in clinical health-care workers. Lancet 1994;343:16181620.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
68.Petrosilla, N, Puro, V, Ipolito, G, and the Italian Study Group on blood-borne Occupational Risk in Dialysis. Prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies in health-care workers. Lancet 1994;344:339340.Google Scholar
69.Lanphear, BP, Linneman, CC, Cannon, CG, DeRonde, MM, Pendy, L, Kerley, LM. Hepatitis C virus infection in health care workers: risk of exposure and infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:745750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
70.Mitsui, T, Iwano, K, Masuko, K, Yamazak, C, Okamoto, H, Tsuda, F, et al.Hepatitis C virus infection in medical personnel after needlestick accident. Hepatology 1992;16:11091114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
71.Knodell, RG, Conrad, ME, Ginsberg, AL, Bell, CJ. Efficacy of prophylactic gamma-globulin in preventing non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis. Lancet 1976;1:557561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
72.Seeff, LB, Zimmerman, HJ, Wright, EC, Finkelstein, JD, Garcia-Pont, P, Greenlee, HB, et al.A randomized, double blind controlled trial of the efficacy of immune serum globulin for the prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis: a Veterans Administration cooperative study. Gastroenterology 1977;72:111121.Google ScholarPubMed
73.Sanchez-Quijano, A, Pineda, JA, lissen, E, Leal, M, Diaz-Torres, MA, Garcia DePesquera, F, et al.Prevention of post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis by non-specific immunoglobulin in heart surgery patients. Lancet 1988;1:12451249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74.Krawczynski, K, Alter, MJ, Govindarajan, S, Tankersley, DL, Lambert, S, Meeks, E, et al.Studies on protective efficacy of hepatitis C immunoglobulins (HCIG) in experimental hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 1993;18:110A. Abstract.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
75.Tokars, JI, Marcus, R, Culver, DH, Schable, CA, McKibben, PS, Bandea, CL, et al.Surveillance of HIV infection and zidovudine use among health care workers after occupational exposure to HIV-infected blood. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:913919.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
76.Henderson, D. HIV-1 in the health care setting. In: Mandel, G, Bennett, J, Dolan, R, eds. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1995:26322656.Google Scholar
77.Puro, V, Ippolito, G, Guzzanti, E, Serafin, I, Pagano, G, Suter, F, et al.Zidovudine prophylaxis after accidental exposure to HIV: the Italian experience. AIDS 1992;6:963969.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
78.Chamberland, ME, Ciesielski, CA, Howard, RJ, Fry, DE, Bell, DM. Occupational risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Surg Clin North Am 1995;75:10571070.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
79.Marcus, R, Bell, DM. Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus. In: Devita, VT, Hellman, S, Rosenberg, SA, eds. AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: LippincottRaven; 1997:645654.Google Scholar
80.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: provisional Public Health Service recommendations for chemoprophylaxis after occupational exposure to HIV. MMWR 1996;45:468472.Google Scholar
81.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Service (PHS) guidelines for the management of health care workers exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR. In press.Google ScholarPubMed
82.Centers for Disease Control. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in an ophthalmology clinic—California. MMWR 1990;39:598601.Google Scholar
83.Ford, E, Nelson, KE, Warren, D. Epidemiology of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Epidemiol Rev 1987;9:244261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
84.Birenbaum, E, Linder, N, Varsano, N, Azar, R, Kuint, J, Spierer, A, et al.Adenovirus type 8 conjunctivitis outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. Arch Dis Child 1993;68:610611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
85.Warren, D, Nelson, KE, Farrar, JA, Hurwitz, E, Hierholzer, J, Ford, E, et al.A large outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis: problems in controlling nosocomial spread. J Infect Dis 1989;160:938943.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
86.Jernigan, JA, Lowry, BS, Hayden, FG, Kyger, SA, Conway, BP, Gröschel, DHM, et al.Adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in an eye clinic: risk factors and control. J Infect Dis 1993;167:13071313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
87.Adler, SP. Molecular epidemiology of cytomegalovirus: a study of factors affecting transmission among children at three day-care centers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991;10:584590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
88.Adler, SP, Bagget, J, Wilson, M, Lawrence, L, McVoy, M. Molecular epidemiology of cytomegalovirus in a nursery: lack of evidence for nosocomial transmission. J Pediatr 1986;108:117123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
89.Meyers, JD, Fluornoy, N, Thomas, ED. Nonbacterial pneumonia after allogeneic marrow transplantation: a review of ten years' experience. Rev Infect Dis 1982;3:11191132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
90.Bowden, RA, Fisher, LD, Rogers, K, Cays, M, Meyers, JD. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific intravenous immunoglobulin for the prevention of primary CMV infection and disease after marrow transplant. J Infect Dis 1991;164:483487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
91.Brady, MT, Demmler, GJ, Reis, S. Factors associated with cytomegalovirus excretion in hospitalized children. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:4145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
92.Demmler, GJ, Yow, MD, Spector, SA, Reis, SC, Brady, MT, Anderson, DC, et al.Nosocomial cytomegalovirus infections within two hospitals caring for infants and children. J Infect Dis 1987;156:916.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
93.Rubin, RH, Wolfson, JS, Cosimi, AB, Tolkoff-Rubin, NE. Infection in the renal transplant recipient. Am J Med 1981;70:405411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
94.Pomeroy, C, Englund, JA. Cytomegalovirus: epidemiology and infection control. Am J Infect Control 1987;15:107119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
95.Ahlfors, K, Ivarsson, SA, Johnson, T, Renmarker, K. Risk of cytomegalovirus infection in nurses and congenital infection in their offspring. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981;70:819823.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
96.Dworsky, ME, Welch, K, Cassady, G, Stango, S. Occupational risk for primary cytomegalovirus infection among pediatric health-care workers. N Engl J Med 1983;309:950953.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
97.Yeager, AS. Longitudinal, serological study of cytomegalovirus infections in nurses and in personnel without patient contact. J Clin Microbiol 1975;2:448452.Google ScholarPubMed
98.Gerberding, JL, Bryant-LeBlanc, CE, Nelson, K, Moss, AR, Osmond, D, Chambers, HF, et al.Risk of transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B virus to health care workers exposed to patients with AIDS and AIDS-related conditions. J Infect Dis 1987;156:18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
99.Blackman, JA, Murph, JR, Bale, JF. Risk of cytomegalovirus infection among educators and health care personnel serving disabled children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:725729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
100.Tolkoff-Rubin, NE, Rubin, RH, Keller, EE, Baker, GP, Stewart, JA, Hirsh, MS. Cytomegalovirus infection in dialysis patients and personnel. Ann Intern Med 1978;89:625628.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
101.Adler, SP. Hospital transmission of cytomegalovirus. Infect Agents Dis 1992;1:4349.Google ScholarPubMed
102.Balfour, CL, Balfour, HH. Cytomegalovirus is not an occupational risk for nurses in renal transplant and neonatal units. JAMA 1986;256:19091914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
103.Brady, MT, Demmler, GJ, Anderson, DC. Cytomegalovirus infection in pediatric house officers: susceptibility to and new rate of primary infection. Infect Control 1987;8:329332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
104.Lipscomb, JA, Linneman, CC, Hurst, PF, Myers, MG, Stringer, W, Moore, P, et al.Prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibody in nursing personnel. Infect Control 1984;5:513518.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
105.Friedman, HM, Lewis, MR, Nemerosky, DM, Plotkin, SA. Acquisition of cytomegalovirus infection among female employees at a pediatric hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1984;3:233235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
106.Balcarek, KB, Bagley, R, Cloud, GA, Pass, RF. Cytomegalovirus infection among employees of a children's hospital: no evidence for increased risk associated with patient care. JAMA 1990;263:840844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
107.Tookey, P, Peckham, CS. Does cytomegalovirus present an occupational risk? Arch Dis Child 1991;66:10091010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
108.Hokeberg, I, Grillner, L, Reisenfeld, T, Diderholm, H. No evidence of hospital-acquired cytomegalovirus on environmental surfaces. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988;7:812814.Google Scholar
109.Yow, MD, Lakeman, AD, Stagno, S, Reynolds, RB, Plavidal, FJ. Use of restriction enzymes to investigate the source of a primary cytomegalovirus infection in a pediatric nurse. Pediatrics 1982;70:713716.Google Scholar
110.Wilfert, CM, Huang, E, Stagno, S. Restriction endonuclease analysis of cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid as an epidemiologic tool. Pediatrics 1982;70:717721.Google ScholarPubMed
111.Spector, SA. Transmission of cytomegalovirus among infants in hospital documented by restriction-endonuclease-digestion analyses. Lancet 1983;2:378381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
112.Pass, RF, Hutto, C, Lyon, MD, Cloud, G. Increased rate of cytomegalovirus infection among day care center workers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1990;9:465470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
113.Pass, RF, Hutto, C, Ricks, R, Cloud, GA. Increased rate of cytomegalovirus infection among parents of children attending daycare centers. N Engl J Med 1986;314:14141418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
114.Adler, SP. Cytomegalovirus and child day care: evidence for an increased infection rate among day-care workers. N Engl J Med 1989;321:12901296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
115.Hutto, C, Little, EA, Ricks, R. Isolation of cytomegalovirus from toys and hands in a day care center. J Infect Dis 1986;154:527530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
116.Faix, RG. Survival of cytomegalovirus on environmental surfaces. J Pediatr 1985;106:649652.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
117.Finney, JW, Miller, KM, Adler, SP. Changing protective and risky behaviors to prevent child-to-parent transmission of cytomegalovirus. J Appl Behav Anal 1993;26:471472.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
118.Stagno, S, Pass, RF, Dworsky, ME, Alford, CA Jr. Maternal cytomegalovirus infection and perinatal transmission. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1982;25:563576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
119.Onorato, IM, Morens, DM, Martone, WJ, Stansfield, SK. Epidemiology of cytomegaloviral infections: recommendations for prevention and control. Rev Infect Dis 1985;7:479497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
120.Balcarek, KB, Bagley, R, Cloud, GA. Nosocomial cytomegalovirus infections within two hospitals caring for infants and children. J Infect Dis 1987;145:916.Google Scholar
121.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: cytomegalovirus infection. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:187191.Google Scholar
122.Plotkin, SA, Starr, SE, Friedman, HM, Gonczole, E, Brayman, K. Vaccines for the prevention of human cytomegalovirus infection. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12(suppl 7):S827S838.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
123.Adler, SP, Starr, SE, Plotkin, SA, Hempfling, SH, Buis, J, Manning, ML, et al.Immunity induced by primary human cytomegalovirus infection protects against secondary infection among women of childbearing age. J Infect Dis 1994;171:2632.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
124.Plotkin, SA, Starr, SE, Friedman, HM, Brayman, K, Harris, S, Jackson, S, et al.Effect of Towne live vaccine on cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplants: a controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:525531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
125.Fleisher, GR, Starr, SE, Friedman, HM, Plotkin, SA. Vaccination of pediatric nurses with live attenuated cytomegalovirus. Am J Dis Child 1982;136:294296.Google ScholarPubMed
126.Snydman, DR, Werner, BG, Heinz-Lacy, B, Berardi, VP, Tilney, NL, Kirkman, RL, et al.Use of cytomegalovirus immune globulin to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in renal-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 1987;317:10491054.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
127.Meyers, JD, Reed, EC, Shepp, DH, Thornquist, M, Dandliker, PS, Vicary, CA, et al.Acyclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease after allogeneic marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 1988;318:7075.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
128.Goodrich, JM, Mori, M, Gleaves, CA, DuMond, C, Cays, M, Ebeling, DF, et al.Early treatment with ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 1991;325:16011607.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
129.Bailey, TC, Trulock, EP, Ettinger, NA, Storch, GA, Cooper, JD, Powderly, WG. Failure of prophylactic ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of lung transplants. J Infect Dis 1992;165:548552.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
130.Hatherly, LI. Is primary cytomegalovirus infection an occupational hazard for obstetric nurses? A serological study. Infect Control 1986;7:452455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
131.Anderson, GS, Penfold, JB. An outbreak of diphtheria in a hospital for the mentally subnormal. J Clin Pathol 1973;26:606615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
132.Gray, RD, James, SM. Occult diphtheria infection in a hospital for the mentally subnormal. Lancet 1973;1:11051106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
133.Palmer, SR, Balfour, AH, Jephcott, AE. Immunisation of adults during an outbreak of diphtheria. BMJ 1983;286:624626.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
134.Bisgard, KM, Hardy, IRB, Popvic, T, Strebel, PM, Wharton, M, Chen, T, et al.Respiratory diphtheria in the United States, 1980-1995. Am J Public Health. In press.Google Scholar
135.Harnisch, JP, Tronca, E, Nolan, CM, Turck, M, Holmes, KK. Diphtheria among alcoholic urban adults: a decade of experience in Seattle. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:7182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
136.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae—northern plains Indian community, August-October 1996. MMWR 1997;46:506510.Google ScholarPubMed
137.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: diphtheria epidemic—new independent states of the former Soviet Union, January 1995-March 1996. MMWR 1996;45:693697.Google ScholarPubMed
138.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diphtheria epidemic—new independent states of the former Soviet Union, 1990-1994. MMWR 1995;44:177181.Google ScholarPubMed
139.Hardy, IRB, Dittmann, S, Sutter, RW. Current situation and control strategies for resurgence of diphtheria in newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. Lancet 1996;347:17391744.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
140.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diphtheria outbreak—Saraburi Province, Thailand, 1994. MMWR 1996;45:271273.Google Scholar
141.Lumio, J, Jahkola, M, Vuento, R, Haikala, O, Eskila, J. Diphtheria after visit to Russia. Lancet 1993;342:5354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
142.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diphtheria acquired by US citizens in the Russian Federation and Ukraine—1994. MMWR 1995;44:237, 243244.Google Scholar
143.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: diphtheria. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:191195.Google Scholar
144.Sargent, RK, Rossing, TH, Dowton, SB, Breyer, MD, Levine, L, Weinstein, L. Diphtheria immunity in Massachusetts—a study of three urban patient populations. Am J Med Sci 1984;287:3739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
145.Weiss, BP, Strassburg, MA, Feeley, JC. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in an elderly population in Los Angeles County. Am J Public Health 1983;73:8024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
146.Crossley, K, Irvine, P, Warren, JB, Lee, BK, Mead, K. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in urban Minnesota adults. JAMA 1979;242:22983000.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
147.Ruben, FL, Nagel, J, Fireman, P. Antitoxin responses in the elderly to tetanus-diphtheria (TD) immunization. Am J Epidemiol 1978;108:145149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
148.Koblin, BA, Townsend, TR. Immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in inner-city women of childbearing age. Am J Public Health 1989;79:12971298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
149.Farizo, KM, Strebel, PM, Chen, RT, Kimbler, A, Cleary, TJ, Cochi, SL. Fatal respiratory disease due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae: case report and review of guidelines for management, investigation, and control. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:5968.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
150.Steere, AC, Craven, PJ, Hall, WJ III, Leotsukis, N, Wells, JG, Farmer, JJ III, et al.Person-to-person spread of Salmonella typhimurium after a hospital common-source outbreak. Lancet 1975;1:319322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
151.Blaser, MJ, Hickman, FW, Farmer, JJ III, Brenner, DJ, Balow, SA, Feldman, RA. Salmonella typhi: the laboratory as a reservoir of infection. J Infect Dis 1980;142:934938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
152.Standaert, SM, Hutcheson, RH, Schaffner, W. Nosocomial transmission of Salmonella gastroenteritis to laundry workers in a nursing home. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:2226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
153.Toivanen, P, Toivanen, A, Olkkonen, L, Aantaa, S. Hospital outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Lancet 1973;1:801803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
154.Ratnam, S, Mercer, E, Picco, B, Parsons, S, Butler, R. A nosocomial outbreak of diarrheal disease due to Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:5, biotype 1. J Infect Dis 1982;145:242247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
155.Anglim, AM, Farr, BM. Nosocomial gastrointestinal tract infections. In: Mayhall, CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996:196219.Google Scholar
156.Mitchell, DK, Pickering, LK. Nosocomial gastrointestinal tract infections in pediatric patients. In: Mayhall, CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996:506523.Google ScholarPubMed
157.McGowan, JE Jr. Nosocomial infections in diagnostic laboratories. In: Mayhall, CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996:883892.Google ScholarPubMed
158.Kurtz, JB, Lee, TW, Pickering, D. Astrovirus associated gastroenteritis in a children's ward. J Clin Pathol 1977;30:948952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
159.Dryjanski, J, Gold, JWM, Ritchie, MT, Kurtz, RC, Lim, SL, Armstrong, D. Cryptosporidiosis: case report in a health team worker. Am J Med 1986;80:751752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
160.Lewis, DC, Lightfoot, NF, Cubitt, WD, Wilson, SA. Outbreaks of astrovirus type 1 and rotovirus gastroenteritis in a geriatric in-patient population. J Hosp Infect 1989;14:914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
161.Koch, KL, Phillips, DJ, Aber, RC, Current, WL. Cryptosporidiosis in hospital personnel: evidence for person-to-person transmission. Ann Intern Med 1985;102:593596.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
162.Pike, RM. Laboratory-associated infections: summary and analysis of 3921 cases. Health Lab Sci 1976;13:105114.Google ScholarPubMed
163.Rodriguez, EM, Parrott, C, Rolka, H, Monroe, SS, Dwyer, DM. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a nursing home: importance of excluding ill employees. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:587592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
164.Gellert, GA, Waterman, SH, Ewert, D, Oshiro, L, Giles, MP, Monroe, SS, et al.An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by a small round structured virus in a geriatric convalescent facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:459464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
165.Chadwick, PR, McCann, R. Transmission of a small round structured virus by vomiting during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J Hosp Infect 1994;26:251259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
166.Linneman, CC Jr, Cannon, CG, Staneck, JL, McNeely, BL. Prolonged hospital epidemic of salmonellosis: use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for control. Infect Control 1985;6:221225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
167.Tauxe, RV, Hassan, LF, Findeisen, KO, Sharrar, RG, Blake, PA. Salmonellosis in nurses: lack of transmission to patients. J Infect Dis 1988;157:370373.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
168.Guerrant, RL. Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging, highly infectious threat. Emerging Infect Dis 1997;3:5157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
169.Schroeder, SA, Aserkoff, B, Brachman, PS. Epidemic salmonellosis in hospitals and institutions: public health importance and outbreak management. N Engl J Med 1968;279:674678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
170.Khuri-Bulos, NA, Abu Khalaf, M, Shehabi, A, Shami, K. Foodhandlerassociated Salmonella outbreak in a university hospital despite routine surveillance cultures of kitchen employees. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:311314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
171.Centers for Disease Control. Viral agents of gastroenteritis. MMWR 1990;39;(RR-5):124.Google ScholarPubMed
172.Caul, EO. Small round structured viruses: airborne transmission and hospital control. Lancet 1994;343:12401242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
173.Noah, ND. Airborne transmission of a small round structured virus. Lancet 1994;343:608609.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
174.Sawyer, LA, Murphy, JJ, Kaplan, JE, Pinsky, PF, Chacon, D, Walmsley, S, et al.25-to 30-nm virus particle associated with a hospital outbreak of acute gastroenteritis with evidence for airborne transmission. Am J Epidemiol 1988;127:12611271.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
175.Sharp, TW, Hyams, KC, Watts, D, Trofa, AF, Martin, GJ, Kapikian, AZ, et al.Epidemiology of Norwalk virus during an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis aboard a US aircraft carrier. J Med Virol 1995;45:6167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
176.Doebbeling, BN, Stanley, GL, Sheetz, CT, Pfaller, MA, Houston, AK, Annis, L, et al.Comparative efficacy of alternative hand-washing agents in reducing nosocomial infections in intensive care units. N Engl J Med 1992;327:8893.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
177.Black, DE, Dykes, AC, Anderson, KE, Wells, JG, Sinclair, SP, Gary, GW, et al.Handwashing to prevent diarrhea in day care centers. Am J Epidemiol 1982;113:445451.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
178.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Typhoid immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1994;43(RR14):17.Google Scholar
179.Ho, MS, Glass, RI, Monroe, SS, Madore, HP, Stine, S, Pinsky, PF, et al.Viral gastroenteritis aboard a cruise ship. Lancet 1989;2:961965.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
180.Kilgore, PE, Belay, ED, Hamlin, DM, Noel, JS, Humphrey, CD, Gary, HE Jr, et al.A university outbreak of gastroenteritis due to a small round-structured virus: application of molecular diagnostics to identify the etiologic agent and patterns of transmission. J Infect Dis 1996;173:787793.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
181.Grohmann, GS, Glass, RI, Pereira, HG, Monroe, SS, Hightower, AW, Weber, R, et al.Enteric viruses and diarrhea in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
182.Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for collection of laboratory specimens associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. MMWR 1990;39(RR-14):113.Google ScholarPubMed
183.Salam, MA, Bennish, ML. Antimicrobial therapy for shigellosis. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13(suppl 4):S332S341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
184.Allos, BM, Blaser, MJ. Campylobacter jejuni and the expanding spectrum of related infections. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:10921099.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
185.Buchwald, DS, Blaser, MJ. A review of human salmonellosis: II. duration of excretion following infection with nontyphi Salmonella. Rev Infect Dis 1984;6:345356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
186.Aserkoff, B, Bennett, JV. Effect of antibiotic therapy in acute salmo-nellosis in the fecal excretion of Salmonellae. N Engl J Med 1969;281:636640.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
187.Pavia, AT, Shipman, LD, Wells, JG, Puhr, ND, Smith, JD, McKinney, TW, et al. Epidemiologic evidence that prior antimicrobial exposure decreases resistance to infection by antimicrobial-sensitive Salmonella. J Infect Dis 1990;161:255260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
188.Miller, SI, Hohmann, EL, Pegues, DA. Salmonella (including Salmonella typhi). In: Mandell, GL, Bennett, JE, Dolin, R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1995:20132033.Google ScholarPubMed
189.Rosenblum, LS, Villarino, ME, Nainan, OV, Melish, ME, Hadler, SC, Pinsley, PP, et al.Hepatitis A outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for transmission and evidence of prolonged viral excretion among preterm infants. J Infect Dis 1991;164:476482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
190.Carl, M, Kantor, RJ, Webster, HM, Fields, MA, Maynard, JE. Excretion of hepatitis A virus in the stools of hospitalized patients. J Med Virol 1982;9:12512129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
191.Drusin, LM, Sohmer, M, Groshen, SL, Spiritos, MD, Senterfit, LB, Christenson, WN. Nosocomial hepatitis A infection in a paediatric intensive care unit. Arch Dis Child 1987;62:690695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
192.Baptiste, R, Koziol, D, Henderson, DK. Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis A in an adult population. Infect Control 1987;8:364370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
193.Azimi, PH, Roberto, RR, Guralnik, J, Livermore, T, Hoag, S, Hagens, S, et al.Transfusion-acquired hepatitis A in a premature infant with secondary nosocomial spread in an intensive care nursery. Am J Dis Child 1986;140:2327.Google Scholar
194.Goodman, RA, Carder, CC, Allen, JR, Orenstein, WA, Finton, RJ. Nosocomial hepatitis A transmission by an adult patient with diarrhea. Am J Med 1982;73:220226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
195.Skidmore, SJ, Gully, PR, Middleton, JD, Hassam, ZA, Singal, GM. An outbreak of hepatitis A on a hospital ward. J Med Virol 1985;17:175177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
196.Klein, BS, Michaels, JA, Rytel, MW, Berg, KG, Davis, JP. Nosocomial hepatitis A: a multinursery outbreak in Wisconsin. JAMA 1984;252:27162721.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
197.Krober, MS, Bass, JW, Brown, JD, Lemon, SM, Rupert, KJ. Hospital outbreak of hepatitis A: risk factors for spread. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1984;3:296299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
198.Reed, CM, Gustafson, TL, Siegel, J, Duer, P. Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis A from a hospital-acquired case. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1984;3:300303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
199.Doebbeling, BN, Li, N, Wenzel, RP. An outbreak of hepatitis A among health care workers: risk factors for transmission. Am J Public Health 1993;83:16791684.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
200.Watson, JC, Fleming, DC, Borella, AJ, Olcott, ES, Conrad, RE, Baron, RC. Vertical transmission of hepatitis A resulting in an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Infect Dis 1993;167:567571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
201.Noble, RC, Kane, MA, Reeves, SA, Roeckel, I. Posttransfusion hepatitis A in a neonatal intensive care unit. JAMA 1984;252:27112715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
202.Lee, KK, Vargo, LR, Le, CT, Fernando, L. Transfusion-acquired hepatitis A outbreak from fresh frozen plasma in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11:122123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
203.Coulepis, AG, Locarnini, SA, Lehman, NI, Gust, ID. Detection of hepatitis A virus in the feces of patients with naturally acquired infections. J Infect Dis 1980;141:151156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
204.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1996;45(RR-15):130.Google Scholar
205.Meyers, JD, Romm, FJ, Tihen, WS, Bryan, JA. Food-borne hepatitis A in a general hospital: epidemiologic study of an outbreak attributed to sandwiches. JAMA 1975;231:10491053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
206.Eisenstein, AB, Aach, RD, Jacobsohn, W, Goldman, A. An epidemic of infectious hepatitis in a general hospital: probable transmission by contaminated orange juice. JAMA 1963;185:171174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
207.Papaevangelou, GJ, Roumeliotou-Karayannis, AJ, Contoyannis, PC. The risk of nosocomial hepatitis A and B virus infections from patients under care without isolation precaution. J Med Virol 1981;7:143148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
208.Kashiwagi, S, Hayashi, J, Ikematsu, H, Nomura, H, Kajiyama, W, Ikematsu, W, et al.Prevalence of immunologic markers of hepatitis A and B infection in hospital personnel in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:960969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
209.Van Dyke, RB, Spector, SA. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 to a newborn infant during endotracheal suctioning for meconium aspiration. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1984;3:153156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
210.Linneman, CC, Buchman, TG, Light, IJ, Ballard, JL. Transmission of herpes-simplex virus type 1 in a nursery for the newborn: identification of isolates by DNA ‘fingerprinting.’ Lancet 1978;1:964966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
211.Kleiman, MB, Schreiner, RL, Eitzen, H, Lemons, JA, Jansen, RD. Oral herpesvirus infection in nursery personnel: infection control policy. Pediatrics 1982;70:609612.Google ScholarPubMed
212.Buchman, TG, Roizman, B, Adams, G, Stover, BH. Restriction endonu-clease fingerprinting of herpes simplex virus DNA: a novel epidemiological tool applied to a nosocomial outbreak. J Infect Dis 1978;138:488498.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
213.Greaves, WL, Kaiser, AB, Alford, RH, Schaffner, W. The problem of herpetic whitlow among hospital personnel. Infect Control 1980;1:381385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
214.Adams, G, Stover, BH, Keenlyside, RA, Hooton, TM, Buchman, TG, Roizman, B, et al.Nosocomial herpetic infections in a pediatric intensive care unit. Am J Epidemiol 1981;113:126132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
215.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: herpes simplex. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:266276.Google Scholar
216.Pereira, FA. Herpes simplex: evolving concepts. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;35:503520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
217.Perl, TM, Haugen, TH, Pfaller, MA, Hollis, R, Lakeman, AD, Whitley, RJ, et al.Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in an intensive care unit. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:584586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
218.Turner, R, Shehab, Z, Osborne, K, Hendley, JO. Shedding and survival of herpes simplex virus from ‘fever blisters.’ Pediatrics 1982;70:547549.Google ScholarPubMed
219.Spruance, SL, Overall, JC Jr, Kern, ER, Krueger, GG, Pliam, V, Miller, W. The natural history of recurrent herpes simplex labialis: implications for antiviral therapy. N Engl J Med 1977;297:6975.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
220.Davis, RM, Orenstein, WA, Frank, JA Jr, Sacks, JJ, Dales, LG, Preblud, SR, et al.Transmission of measles in medical settings, 1980 through 1984. JAMA 1986;255:12951298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
221.Atkinson, WL, Markowitz, LE, Adams, NC, Seastrom, GR. Transmis sion of measles in medical settings—United States, 1985-1989. Am J Med 1991;91(suppl 3B):320S324S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
222.Raad, II, Sheretz, RJ, Rains, CS, Cusick, JL, Fauerbach, LL, Reuman, PD, et al.The importance of nosocomial transmission of measles in the propagation of a community outbreak. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1989;10:161166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
223.Istre, GR, McKee, PA, West, GR, O'Mara, DJ, Rettig, PJ, Stuemky, J, et al. Measles spread in hospital settings: an important focus of disease transmission? Pediatrics 1987;79:356358.Google Scholar
224.Dales, LG, Kizer, KW. Measles transmission in medical facilities. West J Med 1985;142:415416.Google ScholarPubMed
225.Sienko, DG, Friedman, C, McGee, HB, Allen, MJ, Simeson, WF, Wentworth, BB, et al.A measles outbreak at university medical setting involving medical health care providers. Am J Public Health 1987;77:12221224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
226.Rivera, ME, Mason, WH, Ross, LA, Wright, HT Jr. Nosocomial measles infection in a pediatric hospital during a community-wide epidemic. J Pediatr 1991;119:183186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
227.Rank, EL, Brettman, L, Katz-Pollack, H, DeHertogh, D, Neville, D. Chronology of a hospital-wide measles outbreak: lessons learned and shared from an extraordinary week in late March 1989. Am J Infect Control 1992;209:315318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
228.Watkins, NM, Smith, RP Jr, St Germain, DL, MacKay, DN. Measles (rubeola) infection in a hospital setting. Am J Infect Control 1987;15:201206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
229.Remington, PL, Hall, WN, Davis, IH, Herald, A, Gunn, RA. Airborne transmission of measles in a physician's office. JAMA 1985;253:15741577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
230.Atkinson, WL. Measles and health care workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
231.Bloch, AB, Orenstein, WA, Ewing, WM. Measles outbreak in a pediatric practice: airborne transmission in an office setting. Pediatrics 1985;75:676683.Google Scholar
232.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: measles. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:334357.Google Scholar
233.Braunstein, H, Thomas, S, Ito, R. Immunity to measles in a large population of varying age. Am J Dis Child 1990;144:296298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
234.Smith, E, Welch, W, Berhow, M, Wong, VK. Measles susceptibility of hospital employees as determined by ELISA. Clin Res 1990;38:183A. Abstract.Google Scholar
235.Subbarao, EK, Amin, S, Kumar, ML. Prevaccination serologic screening for measles in health care workers. J Infect Dis 1991;163:876878.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
236.Sellick, J Jr, Longbine, D, Schiffeling, R, Mylotte, JM. Screening hospital employees for measles immunity is more cost effective than blind immunization. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:982984.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
237.Grabowsky, M, Markowitz, LE. Serologic screening, mass immunization, and implications for immunization programs. J Infect Dis 1991;164:12371238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
238.Stover, BH, Adams, G, Kuebler, CA, Cost, KM, Rabalais, GP. Measlesmumps-rubella immunization of susceptible hospital employees during a community measles outbreak: cost-effectiveness and protective efficacy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:1821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
239.Jackson, LA, Schuchat, A, Reeves, NW, Wenger, JD. Serogroup C meningococcal outbreaks in the United States: an emerging threat. JAMA 1995;273:383389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
240.Houck, P, Patnode, M, Atwood, R, Powell, K. Epidemiologic characteristics of an outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease and the public health response. Public Health Rep 1995;110:343349.Google ScholarPubMed
241.Centers for Disease Control. Laboratory-acquired meningococcemia—California and Massachusetts. MMWR 1991;40:46-47, 55.Google ScholarPubMed
242.Centers for Disease Control. Nosocomial meningococcemia—Wisconsin. MMWR 1978;27:358363.Google Scholar
243.Rose, HD, Lenz, IE, Sheth, NK. Meningococcal pneumonia: a source of nosocomial infection. Arch Intern Med 1981;141:575577.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
244.Cohen, MS, Steere, AC, Baltimore, R, von Graevenitz, A, Pantelick, E, Camp, B, et al.Possible nosocomial transmission of group Y Neisseria meningitidis among oncology patients. Ann Intern Med 1979;91:712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
245.Broome, CV. The carrier state: Neisseria meningitidis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1986;18(suppl A):2534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
246.Gaunt, PN, Lambert, BE. Single dose ciprofloxacin for the eradication of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1988;21:489496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
247.Munford, RS, Taunay, A, de Morais, JS, Fraser, DW, Feldman, RA. Spread of meningococcal infection within households. Lancet 1974;1:12751278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
248.American Academy of Pediatrics. Meningococcal disease prevention and control strategies for practice-based physicians. Pediatrics 1996;97:404411.Google ScholarPubMed
249.Riedo, FX, Plikaytis, BD, Broome, CV. Epidemiology and prevention of meningococcal disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14:643657.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
250.Griffis, JM. Epidemic meningococcal disease: synthesis of a hypothetical immunoepidemiologic model. Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:159172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
251.Caugant, DA, Hoiby, EA, Magnus, P, Scheel, O, Hoel, T, Bjune, G, et al.Asymptomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in a randomly sampled population. J Clin Microbiol 1994;32:323330.Google Scholar
252.Caugant, DA, Hoiby, EA, Rosenqvist, E, Froholm, LO, Selander, RK. Transmission of Neisseria meningitidis among asymptomatic military recruits and antibody analysis. Epidemiol Infect 1992;109:241253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
253.Wharton, M, Cochi, SL, Hutcheson, RH, Schaffner, W. Mumps transmission in hospitals. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:4749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
254.Fischer, PR, Brunetti, C, Welch, V, Christenson, JC. Nosocomial mumps: report of an outbreak and its control. Am J Infect Control 1996;24:1318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
255.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: mumps. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:366369.Google Scholar
256.Williams, WW, Preblud, SR, Reichelderfer, PS, Hadler, SC. Vaccines of importance in the hospital setting: problems and developments. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1989;3:701722.Google ScholarPubMed
257.Koplan, JP, Preblud, SR. A benefit-cost analysis of mumps vaccine. Am J Dis Child 1982;136:362364.Google ScholarPubMed
258.Hersh, BS, Fine, PEM, Kent, WK, Cochi, SL, Kahn, LH, Zell, ER, et al.Mumps outbreak in a highly vaccinated population. J Pediatr 1991;119:187193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
259.Anderson, LJ, Török, TJ. The clinical spectrum of human parvovirus B19 infections. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 1991;11:267280.Google ScholarPubMed
260.Török, TJ. Parvovirus B19 and human disease. Adv Intern Med 1992;37:431455.Google ScholarPubMed
261.Shishiba, T, Matsunaga, Y. An outbreak of erythema infectiosum among hospital staff members including a patient with pleural fluid and pericardial effusion. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;29:265267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
262.Seng, C, Watkins, P, Morse, D, Barrett, SP, Zambon, M, Andrews, N, et al.Parvovirus B19 outbreak on an adult ward. Epidemiol Infect 1994;113:345353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
263.Bell, LM, Naides, J, Stoffman, P, Hodinka, RL, Plotkin, SA. Human parvovirus B19 infection among hospital staff members after contact with infected patients. N Engl J Med 1989;321:485491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
264.Harrison, J, Jones, DE. Human parvovirus B19 in health care workers. Occup Med 1995;45:9396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
265.Pillay, D, Patou, G, Hurt, S, Kibbler, CC, Griffiths, PD. Parvovirus B19 outbreak in a children's ward. Lancet 1992;339:107109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
266.Dowell, SF, Török, TJ, Thorp, JA, Hedrick, J, Erdman, DD, Zaki, SR, et al.Parvovirus B19 infection in hospital workers: community or hospital acquisition. J Infect Dis 1995;172:1076–109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
267.Ray, SM, Erdman, DD, Berschling, JD, Cooper, JE, Török, TJ, Blumberg, HM, et al.Nosocomial exposure to parvovirus B19: low risk of transmission to healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:109114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
268.Koziol, DE, Kurtzman, G, Ayub, J, Young, NS, Henderson, DK. Nosocomial human parvovirus B19 infection: lack of transmission from a chronically infected patient to hospital staff. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:343348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
269.Evans, JP, Rossiter, MA, Kumaran, TO, Marsh, GW, Mortimer, PP. Human parvovirus aplasia: case due to cross infection in a ward. BMJ 1984;288:681.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
270.Cohen, BJ, Courouce, AM, Schwartz, TF, Okochi, K, Kurtzman, GJ. Laboratory infection with parvovirus B19. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:10271028. Letter.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
271.Anderson, MJ, Gillespie, SM, Török, TJ, Hurwitz, ES, Tsou, J, Gary, GW. Risk of infection following exposures to human parvovirus B19. Behring Inst Mitt 1990;85:6063.Google Scholar
272.Anderson, MJ, Lewis, E, Kidd, IM, Hall, SM, Cohen, BJ. An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg 1984;93:8593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
273.Chorba, T, Coccia, P, Holman, RC, Tattersall, P, Anderson, LJ, Sudman, J, et al.The role of parvovirus B19 in aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum. J Infect Dis 1986;154:383393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
274.Török, TJ. Human parvovirus B19. In: Remington, JS, Klein, JO, eds. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1995:668702.Google Scholar
275.Török, TJ. Human parvovirus B19 infections in pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1990;9:772776.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
276.Kurt, TL, Yeager, AS, Guennette, S, Dunlop, S. Spread of pertussis by hospital staff. JAMA 1972;221:264267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
277.Linneman, CC Jr, Ramundo, N, Perlstein, PH, Minton, SD, Englender, GS. Use of pertussis vaccine in an epidemic involving hospital staff. Lancet 1975;2:540543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
278.Valenti, WM, Pincus, PH, Messner, MK. Nosocomial pertussis: possible spread by a hospital visitor. Am J Dis Child 1980;134:520521.Google ScholarPubMed
279.Christie, C, Glover, AM, Willke, MJ, Marx, ML, Reising, SF, Hutchinson, NM. Containment of pertussis in the regional pediatric hospital during the greater Cincinnati epidemic of 1993. Infect Control Hosp Epi demiol 1995;16:556563.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
280.Shefer, A, Dales, L, Nelson, M, Werner, B, Baron, R, Jackson, R. Use and safety of acellular pertussis vaccine among adult hospital staff during an outbreak of pertussis. J Infect Dis 1995;171:10531056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
281.Deville, JG, Cherry, JD, Christenson, PD, Pineda, E, Leach, CT, Kuhls, TL, et al.Frequency of unrecognized Bordetella pertussis in adults. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:639642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
282.Nennig, ME, Shinefield, HR, Edwards, KM, Black, SB, Fireman, BH. Prevalence and incidence of adult pertussis in an urban population. JAMA 1996;275:16721674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
283.Mortimer, EA Jr. Pertussis vaccine. In: Plotkin, SA, Mortimer, EA Jr, eds. Vaccines. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1994:91137.Google Scholar
284.Mortimer, EA Jr. Pertussis and its prevention: a family affair. J Infect Dis 1990;161:473479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
285.Deen, JL, Mink, CA, Cherry, JD, Christenson, PD, Pineda, EF, Lewis, K, et al.Household contact study of Bordetella pertussis infections. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:12111219.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
286.Edwards, KM, Decker, MD, Graham, BS, Mozzatesta, J, Scott, J, Hackell, J. Adult immunization with acellular pertussis vaccine. JAMA 1993;269:5356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
287.Weber, DJ, Rutala, WA. Management of healthcare workers exposed to pertussis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:411415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
288.Halsey, NA, Welling, MA, Lehman, RM. Nosocomial pertussis: a failure of erythromycin treatment and prophylaxis. Am J Dis Child 1980; 134:521522.Google ScholarPubMed
289.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Paralytic poliomyelitis— United States, 1980-1994. MMWR 1997;46:7983.Google ScholarPubMed
290.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: poliovirus infections. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:424433.Google Scholar
291.Fishbein, DB, Robinson, LE. Current concepts: rabies. N Engl J Med 1997;329:16321638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
292.Winkler, WG, Fashinell, TR, Leffingwell, L, Howard, P, Conomy, JP. Airborne rabies transmission in a laboratory worker. JAMA 1973;226:12191221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
293.Centers for Disease Control. Rabies in a laboratory worker—New York. MMWR 1977;26:183184.Google Scholar
294.Helmick, CG, Tauxe, RV, Vernon, AA. Is there a risk to contacts of patients with rabies? Rev Infect Dis 1987;9:511518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
295.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human rabies—New Hampshire, 1996. MMWR 1997;46:267270.Google Scholar
296.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human rabies—Connecticut, 1995. MMWR 1996;45:207209.Google ScholarPubMed
297.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human rabies—Washington, 1995. MMWR 1995;44:625627.Google ScholarPubMed
298.Greaves, WL, Orenstein, WA, Stetler, HC, Preblud, SR, Hinman, AR, Bart, KJ. Prevention of rubella transmission in medical facilities. JAMA 1982;248:861864.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
299.Centers for Disease Control. Rubella in hospitals—California. MMWR 1983;32:3739.Google Scholar
300.Poland, GA, Nichol, KL. Medical students as sources of rubella and measles outbreaks. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:4446.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
301.Storch, GA, Gruber, C, Benz, B, Beaudoin, J, Hayes, J. A rubella outbreak among dental students: description of the outbreak and analysis of control measures. Infect Control 1985;6:150156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
302.Strassburg, MA, Stephenson, TG, Habel, LA, Fannin, SL. Rubella in hospital employees. Infect Control 1984;5:123126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
303.Fliegel, PE, Weinstein, WM. Rubella outbreak in a prenatal clinic: management and prevention. Am J Infect Control 1982;10:2933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
304.Strassburg, MA, Imagawa, DT, Fannin, SL, Turner, JA, Chow, AW, Murray, RA, et al.Rubella outbreak among hospital employees. Obstet Gynecol 1981;57:283288.Google ScholarPubMed
305.Gladstone, JL, Millian, SJ. Rubella exposure in an obstetric clinic. Obstet Gynecol 1981;57:182186.Google Scholar
306.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: rubella. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:456462.Google Scholar
307.Polk, FB, White, JA, DeGirolami, PC, Modlin, JF. An outbreak of rubella among hospital personnel. N Engl J Med 1980;303:541545.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
308.Sachs, JJ, Olson, B, Soter, J, Clark, C. Employee rubella screening programs in Arizona hospitals. JAMA 1983;249:26752678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
309.Preblud, SR. Some current issues relating to the rubella vaccine. JAMA 1985;254:253256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
310.Lettau, LA. Nosocomial transmission and infection control aspects of parasitic and ectoparasitic diseases, part III: ectoparasites/summary and conclusions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:179185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
311.Juranek, DD, Currier, RW, Millikan, LE. Scabies control in institutions. In: Orkin, M, Maiback, HI, eds. Cutaneous Infestations and Insect Bites. New York, NY: Dekker; 1985:139156.Google Scholar
312.Jucowics, P, Ramon, ME, Don, PC, Stone, RK, Bamji, M. Norwegian scabies in an infant with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1989;125:16701671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
313.Hench, C, Paulson, SS, Stevens, DA, Thompson, JD. Scabies outbreak on a spinal cord injury unit. Rehabil Nurs 1994;19:2123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
314.Jimenez-Lucho, VE, Fallon, F, Caputo, C, Ramsey, K. Role of prolonged surveillance in the eradication of nosocomial scabies in an extended care Veterans Affairs medical center. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:4449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
315.Degelau, J. Scabies in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:421425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
316.Lerche, NW, Currier, RW, Juranek, DD, Baer, W, Dubay, NJ. Atypical crusted ‘Norwegian’ scabies: report of nosocomial transmission in a community hospital and an approach to control. Cutis 1983;31:668684.Google Scholar
317.Lempert, KD, Baltz, PS, Welton, WA, Whittier, FC. Pseudouremic pruritus: a scabies epidemic in a dialysis unit. Am J Kidney Dis 1985;5:117119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
318.Thomas, MC, Giedinghagen, DH, Hoff, GL. Brief report: an outbreak of scabies among employees in a hospital-associated commercial laundry. Infect Control 1987;8:427429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
319.Centers for Disease Control. Scabies in health-care facilities—Iowa. MMWR 1988;37:178179.Google Scholar
320.Orkin, M. Scabies in AIDS. Semin Dermatol 1993;12:914.Google Scholar
321.Lam, S, Brennessel, D. Norwegian scabies and HIV infection—case report and literature review. Infect Dis Clin Practice 1993;3:169173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
322.Gooch, JJ, Strasius, SR, Beamer, B, Reiter, MD, Correll, GW. Nosocomial outbreak of scabies. Arch Dermatol 1978;114:897898.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
323.Corbett, EL, Crossley, I, Holton, J, Levell, N, Miller, RF, DeCock, KM. Crusted (‘Norwegian’) scabies in a specialist HIV unit: successful use of ivermectin and failure to prevent nosocomial transmission. Genitourin Med 1996;72:115117.Google Scholar
324.Taplin, D, Rivera, A, Walker, JG, Roth, WI, Reno, D, Meinking, T. A comparative trial of three treatment schedules for the eradication of scabies. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983;9:550554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
325.Arlian, LG, Estes, SA, Vyszenski-Moher, DL. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabei in the homes and nursing homes of scabietic patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;19:806811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
326.Estes, SA, Estes, J. Therapy of scabies: nursing homes, hospitals, and the homeless. Semin Dermatol 1993;12:2633.Google ScholarPubMed
327.Sargent, SJ. Ectoparasites. In: Mayhall, CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996:465472.Google Scholar
328.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998 guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases MMWR 1998;47(RR-1):105108.Google ScholarPubMed
329.Brown, S, Becher, J, Brady, W. Treatment of ectoparasitic infections: review of the English-language literature, 1982-1992. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20(suppl 1):S104S109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
330. Anonymous. Drugs for parasitic infections. Med Lett Drugs Ther 1995;37:102, 105.Google ScholarPubMed
331.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: scabies. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 27th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:468470.Google Scholar
332.Mienking, TL, Taplan, D, Hermida, JL, Pardo, R, Kerdel, FA. The treatment of scabies with ivermectin. N Engl J Med 1995;333:2630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
333.Hopper, AH, Salisbury, J, Jegadeva, AN, Scott, B, Bennett, GCS. Epidemic Norwegian scabies in a geriatric unit. Age Ageing 1990;19:125127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
334.Taplin, D, Arrue, C, Walker, JG, Roth, WI, Rivera, A. Eradication of scabies with a single treatment schedule. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983;9:546550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
335.Juranek, DD. Pediculosis capitis in school children: epidemiologic trends, risk factors, and recommendations for control. In: Orkin, M, Maiback, HI, eds. Cutaneous Infestations and Insect Bites. New York, NY: Dekker; 1985:199211.Google Scholar
336.Wenzel, RP. Healthcare workers and the incidence of nosocomial infection: can treatment of one influence the other? A brief review. J Chemother 1994;6(suppl 4):33-37, 3940.Google Scholar
337.Panlilio, AL, Culver, DH, Gaynes, RP, Banerjee, S, Henderson, TS, Tolson, JS, et al.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US hospitals, 1975-1991. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:582586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
338.Boyce, JM. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Detection, epidemiology and control measures. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1989;3:901913.Google ScholarPubMed
339.Boyce, JM. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals and long-term care facilities: microbiology, epidemiology, and preventive measures. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:725737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
340.Boyce, JM. Should we vigorously try to contain and control methi-cillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:4654.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
341.Boyce, JM, Opal, SM, Byone-Potter, G, Medeiros, AA. Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a hospital after exposure to a health care worker with chronic sinusitis. Clin Infect Dis 1993;17:496504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
342.Sherertz, RJ, Reagan, DR, Hampton, KD, Robertson, KL, Streed, SA, Hoen, HM, et al.A cloud adult: the Staphylococcus aureus-virus interaction revisited. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:539547.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
343.Belani, A, Sherertz, RJ, Sullivan, ML, Russel, BA, Reumen, PD. Outbreak of staphylococcal infection in two hospital nurseries traced to a single nasal carrier. Infect Control 1986;7:487490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
344.Kreiswirth, BN, Kravitz, GR, Schlievert, PM, Novick, RP. Nosocomial transmission of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus causing toxic shock syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:704707.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
345.Villarino, ME, Vugia, DJ, Bean, NH, Jarvis, WR, Hughes, JM. Foodborne disease prevention in health care facilities. In: Bennett, JV, Brachman, PS, eds. Hospital Infections. 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Co; 1992:345358.Google Scholar
346.Layton, MC, Perez, M, Heald, P, Patterson, JE. An outbreak of mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on a dermatology ward associated with an environmental reservoir. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14:369375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
347.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: staphylococcal infections. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:476482.Google Scholar
348.Boyce, JM, Landry, M, Deetz, TR, DuPont, HL. Epidemiologic studies of an outbreak of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infect Control 1981;2:110116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
349.Walsh, TJ, Standiford, HD, Reboli, AC, John, JF, Mulligan, ME, Ribner, BS, et al.Randomized double-blinded trial of rifampin with either novo-biocin or trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization: prevention of antimicrobial resistance and effect of host factors on outcome. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993;37:13341342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
350.Mulligan, ME, Murray-Leisure, KA, Ribner, BS, Standiford, HC, John, JF, Korvick, JA, et al.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a consensus review of the microbiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology with implications for prevention and management. Am J Med 1993;94:313328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
351.Reboli, AC, John, JF, Platt, CG, Cantley, JR. Methicillin-resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus outbreak at a Veterans' Affairs medical center: importance of carriage of the organism by hospital personnel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:291296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
352.Reagan, DR, Doebbeling, BN, Pfaller, MA, Sheetz, CT, Houston, AK, Hollis, RJ, et al.Elimination of coincident Staphylococcus aureus nasal and hand carriage with intranasal application of mupirocin calcium ointment. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:101106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
353.Chambers, HF. Treatment of infection and colonization caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:2935.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
354.Kauffman, CA, Terpenning, MS, He, X, Zaring, LT, Ramsey, MA, Jorgensen, KA, et al.Attempts to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylo-coccus aureus from a long-term-care facility with the use of mupirocin ointment. Am J Med 1993;94:371378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
355.Wenzel, RP, Nettleman, MD, Jones, RN, Pealler, MA. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: implications for the 1990s and effective control measures. Am J Med 1991;91(suppl 3B):221S227S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
356.Doebbeling, BN, Breneman, DL, Neu, HC, Aly, R, Yangco, BG, Holley, HP Jr, et al.Elimination of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in health care workers: analysis of six clinical trials with calcium mupirocin ointment. Clin Infect Dis 1993;17:466474.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
357.Doebbeling, BN, Reagan, DR, Pfaller, MA, Houston, AK, Hollis, RJ, Wenzel, RP. Long-term efficacy of intranasal mupirocin ointment. A prospective cohort study of Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:15051508.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
358.Smith, SM, Eng, RH, Tecson-Tumang, F. Ciprofloxacin therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections or colonization. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:181184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
359.Darouiche, R, Wright, C, Hamill, R, Koza, M, Lewis, D, Markowski, J. Eradication of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by using oral minocycline-rifampin and topical mupirocin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991;35:16121615.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
360.Arathoon, EG, Hamilton, JR, Hench, CE, Stevens, DA. Efficacy of short courses of oral novobiocin-rifampin in eradicating carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and in vitro killing studies of clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990;34:16551659.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
361.Bartzokas, CA, Paton, JH, Gibson, MF, Graham, F, McLoughlin, GA, Croton, RS. Control and eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylo-coccus aureus on a surgical unit. N Engl J Med 1984;311:14221425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
362.Ward, TT, Winn, RE, Hartstein, AL, Sewell, DL. Observations relating to an inter-hospital outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: role of antimicrobial therapy in infection control. Infect Control 1981;2:453459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
363.Boyce, JM, Jackson, MM, Pugliese, G, Batt, MD, Fleming, D, Garner, JS, et al.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): a briefing for acute care hospitals and nursing facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:105115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
364.Strasbaugh, LJ, Jacobson, C, Sewell, DL, Potter, S, Ward, TT. Antimicrobial therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in residents and staff of a Veterans Affairs nursing home care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:151159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
365.Miller, MA, Dascal, A, Portnoy, J, Mendelson, J. Development of mupirocin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after widespread use of nasal mupirocin ointment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:811813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
366.Santos, KRN, Fonseca, LS, Filho, PPG. Emergence of high-level mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Brazilian university hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:813816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
367.Valenzuela, TD, Hooton, TM, Kaplan, EL, Schlievert, PM. Transmission of toxic strep syndrome from an infected child to a firefighter during CPR. Ann Emerg Med 1991;20:9092.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
368.Rammelkamp, CH, Mortimer, EA, Wolinsky, E. Transmission of strep-tococcal and staphylococcal infection. Ann Intern Med 1964;60:753758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
369.Weber, DJ, Rutala, WA, Denny, FW Jr. Management of healthcare workers with pharyngitis or suspected streptococcal infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:753761.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
370.Mastro, TD, Farley, TA, Elliott, JA, Facklam, RR, Perks, JR, Hadler, JL, et al.An outbreak of surgical-wound infections due to group A streptococcus carried on the scalp. N Engl J Med 1990;323:968972.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
371.Viglionese, A, Nottebart, VF, Bodman, HA, Platt, R. Recurrent group A streptococcal carriage in a health care worker associated with widely separated nosocomial outbreaks. Am J Med 1991;91(suppl 3B): 329S333S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
372.Paul, SM, Genese, C, Spitalny, K. Postoperative group A-hemolytic streptococcus outbreak with the pathogen traced to a member of a healthcare worker's household. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:643646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
373.Ridgway, EJ, Allen, KD. Clustering of group A streptococcal infections on a burns unit: important lessons in outbreak management. J Hosp Infect 1993;25:173182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
374.Berkelman, RL, Martin, D, Graham, DR, Mowry, J, Freisem, R, Weber, JA, et al.Streptococcal wound infections caused by a vaginal carrier. JAMA 1982;247:26802682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
375.Schaffner, W, Lefkowitz, LB Jr, Goodman, JS, Koenig, MG. Hospital outbreak of infections with group A streptococci traced to an asymptomatic anal carrier. N Engl J Med 1969;280:12241225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
376.Richman, DD, Breton, SJ, Goldmann, DA. Scarlet fever and group A streptococcal surgical wound infection traced to an anal carrier. J Pediatr 1977;90:387390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
377.Decker, MD, Lavely, GB, Hutcheson, RHJ, Schaffner, W. Food-borne streptococcal pharyngitis in a hospital pediatrics clinic. JAMA 1986;253:679681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
378.Stromberg, A, Schwan, A, Cars, O. Throat carrier rates of beta-hemolytic streptococci among healthy adults and children. Scand J Infect Dis 1988;20:411417.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
379.Stamm, WE, Feeley, JC, Facklam, RR. Wound infection due to group A streptococcus traced to a vaginal carrier. J Infect Dis 1978;138:287292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
380.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: group A streptococcal infections. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:483494.Google Scholar
381.Barnes, PF, Bloch, AB, Davidson, PT, Snider, DE. Tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1991;324:16441650.Google Scholar
382.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care facilities, 1994. MMWR 1994;43(RR-13):1132.Google ScholarPubMed
383.Edlin, BR, Tokars, JI, Grieco, MH, Crawford, JT, Williams, J, Sordillo, EM, et al.An outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among hospitalized patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1992;326:15141521.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
384.Stroud, LA, Tokars, JI, Grieco, MH, Crawford, JT, Culver, DH, Edlin, BR, et al.Evaluation of infection control measures in preventing the nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a New York City hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:141147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
385.Beck-Sagué, CM, Dooley, SW, Hutton, MD, Otten, J, Breeden, A, Crawford, JT, et al.Hospital outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections: factors in transmission to staff and HIV-infected patients. JAMA 1992;268:12801286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
386.Wenger, PN, Otten, J, Breeden, A, Orfas, E, Beck-Sagué, CM, Jarvis, WR. Control of nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among healthcare workers and HIV- infected patients. Lancet 1995;345:235240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
387.Dooley, SW, Villarino, ME, Lawrence, M, Salinas, L, Amil, S, Rullan, JV, et al.Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis in a hospital unit for HIV-infected patients. JAMA 1992;267:26322635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
388.Pearson, ML, Jereb, JA, Frieden, TR, Crawford, JT, Davis, BJ, Dooley, SW, et al.Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobac-terium tuberculosis: a risk to patients and health care workers. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:191196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
389.Cleveland, JL, Kent, J, Gooch, BF, Valway, SE, Marianos, DW, Butler, WR, et al.Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an HIV dental clinic. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
390.Ridzon, R, Kenyon, T, Luskin-Hawk, R, Schultz, C, Valway, S, Onorato, IM. Nosocomial transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and subsequent transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a healthcare worker. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:422423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
391.Jereb, JA, Klevens, M, Privett, TD, Smith, PJ, Crawford, JT, Sharp, VL, et al.Tuberculosis in health care workers at a hospital with an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:854859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
392.Sepkowitz, KA. Tuberculosis and the health care worker: a historical perspective. Ann Intern Med 1994;120:7179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
393.Menzies, D, Fanning, A, Yuan, L, Fitzgerald, M. Tuberculosis among health care workers. N Engl J Med 1995;332:9298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
394.McKenna, MT, Hutton, MD, Cauthen, G, Onorato, IM. The association between occupation and tuberculosis: a population based survey. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:587589.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
395.Zaza, S, Blumberg, HM, Beck-Sagué, C, Haas, WH, Woodley, CL, Pineda, M, et al.Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: role of health care workers in outbreak propagation. J Infect Dis 1995; 172:15421549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
396.Jarvis, WR. Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobac-terium tuberculosis. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:146151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
397.Ikeda, RM, Birkhead, GS, DiFerdinando, GT Jr, Bornstein, DL, Dooley, SW, Kubica, GP, et al.Nosocomial tuberculosis: an outbreak of a strain resistant to seven drugs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:152159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
398.Ussery, XT, Bierman, JA, Valway, S, Seitz, TA, DiFerdinando, GT Jr, Ostroff, SM. Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among persons exposed in a medical examiner's office, New York. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:160165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
399.Hutton, MD, Stead, WW, Cauthen, GM, Bloch, AB, Ewing, WM. Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis associated with a draining abscess. J Infect Dis 1990;161:286295.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
400.Kramer, F, Sasse, SA, Simms, JC, Leedom, JM. Primary cutaneous tuberculosis after a needlestick injury from a patient with AIDS and undiagnosed tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:594595.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
401.Rattner, SL, Fleischer, JA, Davidson, BL. Tuberculin positivity and patient contact in healthcare workers in the urban United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:369371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
402.Chaisson, R, Benson, C. Tuberculosis. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1995.Google ScholarPubMed
403.Selwyn, PA, Hartel, D, Lewis, VA, Schoenbaum, EE, Vermund, SH, Klein, RS. A prospective study of the risk of tuberculosis among intravenous drug users with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1989;320:545550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
404.Pugliese, G, Tapper, ML. Tuberculosis control in health care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:819827.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
405.Maloney, SA, Pearson, ML, Gordon, MT, DelCastillo, R, Boyle, JF, Jarvis, WR. Efficacy of control measures in preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to patients and health care workers. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:9095.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
406.American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control. Diagnostic standards and classification of tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:725735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
407.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Screening for tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in high-risk populations: recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. MMWR 1995;44(RR-11):1934.Google ScholarPubMed
408.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Anergy skin testing and preventive therapy for HIV-infected persons: revised recommendations. MMWR 1997;46(RR-15):110.Google ScholarPubMed
409.Centers for Disease Control. Management of persons exposed to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. MMWR 1992;41(RR-11):5971.Google ScholarPubMed
410.Rodrigues, L, Diwan, D, Wheeler, J. Protective effect of BCG against tuberculosis meningitis and miliary tuberculosis: a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:11541158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
411.Colditz, GA, Brewer, TF, Berkey, CS, Wilson, ME, Burdick, E, Fineberg, HV, et al.Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis: meta-analysis of the published literature. JAMA 1994;271:698702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
412.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The role of BCG vaccine in the prevention and control of tuberculosis in the United States: a joint statement by the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 1996;45(RR-4):118.Google ScholarPubMed
413.Lotte, A, Wasz-Hockert, O, Poisson, N, Engbaek, H, Landmann, H, Quast, U. Second IUATLD study on complications induced by intradermal BCG vaccination. Bull Int Union Tuberc Lung Dis 1988;63:4759.Google ScholarPubMed
414.Caglayan, S, Yegin, O, Kayran, K, Timocin, N, Kasirga, E, Gun, M. Is medical therapy effective for regional lymphadenitis following BCG vaccination? Am J Dis Child 1987;141:12131214.Google ScholarPubMed
415.Brewer, T, Colditz, G. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination for prevention of tuberculosis in health care workers. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20:136142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
416.Centers for Disease Control. Disseminated Mycobacterium bovis infection from BCG vaccination of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR 1985;34:227228.Google Scholar
417.Ninane, J, Grymonprez, A, Burtonboy, G, Francois, A, Cornu, G. Disseminated BCG in HIV infection. Arch Dis Child 1988;63:12681269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
418.Smith, E, Thybo, S, Bennedsen, J. Infection with Mycobacterium bovis in a patient with AIDS: a late complication of BCG vaccination. Scand J Infect Dis 1992;24:109110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
419.von Reyn, CF, Clements, CJ, Mann, JM. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and routine childhood immunisation. Lancet 1987;2:669672.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
420.Comstock, GW, Edwards, LB, Nabangxang, H. Tuberculin sensitivity eight to fifteen years after BCG vaccination. Am Rev Respir Dis 1971;103:572575.Google ScholarPubMed
421.Guld, J, Waaler, H, Sundaresan, TK, Kaufmann, PC, Dam, HG. The duration of BCG-induced tuberculin sensitivity in children, and its irrelevance for revaccination: results of two 5-year prospective studies. Bull World Health Organ 1968;39:829836.Google ScholarPubMed
422.Orefici, G, Scopetti, F, Grandolfo, ME, Annes, I, Kissopoulos, A. Study of a BCG vaccine: influence of dose and time. Boll Ist Sieroter Milan 1982;61:2428.Google ScholarPubMed
423.Fine, PEM, Pönnighaus, JM, Maine, NP. The relationship between delayed type hypersensitivity and protective immunity induced by mycobacterial vaccines in man. Lepr Rev 1986;57(suppl 2):275283.Google ScholarPubMed
424.Fine, PEM, Sterne, JAC, Pönnighaus, JM, Rees, RJW. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, mycobacterial vaccines and protective immunity. Lancet 1994;344:12451249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
425.American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control. The tuberculin test. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981;124:356363.Google ScholarPubMed
426.Lane, JM, Ruben, FL, Neff, JM, Millar, JD. Complications of smallpox vaccination, 1968: results of ten statewide surveys. J Infect Dis 1970;122:303309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
427.Centers for Disease Control. Contact spread of vaccinia from a recently vaccinated Marine—Louisiana. MMWR 1984;33:3738.Google Scholar
428.Centers for Disease Control. Contact spread of vaccinia from a National Guard vaccinee—Wisconsin. MMWR 1985;34:182183.Google Scholar
429.Centers for Disease Control. Vaccinia outbreak—Newfoundland. MMWR 1981;30:453455.Google Scholar
430.Meyers, JD, MacQuarrie, MB, Merigan, TC, Jennison, MH. Nosocomial varicella. Part 1: outbreak in oncology patients at a children's hospital. West J Med 1979;130:196199.Google Scholar
431.Morens, DM, Bregman, DJ, West, CM, Green, MH, Mazur, MH, Dolin, R, et al.An outbreak of varicella-zoster virus infection among cancer patients. Ann Intern Med 1980;93:414419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
432.Baltimore, RS. Nosocomial infections in the pediatric intensive care unit. Yale J Biol Med 1984;57:185197.Google ScholarPubMed
433.Gustafson, TL, Shebab, A, Brunell, PA. Outbreak of varicella in a newborn intensive care nursery. Am J Dis Child 1984;138:548550.Google Scholar
434.Hyams, PJ, Stuewe, MCS, Heitzer, V. Herpes zoster causing varicella (chicken pox) in hospital employees: cost of a casual attitude. Infect Control 1984;12:25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
435.Weitekamp, MR, Schan, P, Aber, RC. An algorithm for the control of varicella-zoster virus infection. Am J Infect Control 1985;13:193198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
436.Alter, SJ, Hammond, JA, McVey, CJ, Myers, MG. Susceptibility to varicella-zoster virus among adults at high risk for exposure. Infect Control 1986;7:448451.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
437.Krasinski, K, Holzman, RS, LaCouture, R, Florman, A. Hospital experience with varicella-zoster virus. Infect Control 1986;7:312316.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
438.Haiduven-Griffiths, D, Fecko, H. Varicella in hospital personnel: a challenge for the infection control practitioner. Am J Infect Control 1987;15:207211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
439.Weber, DJ, Rutala, WA, Parham, C. Impact and costs of varicella prevention in a university hospital. Am J Public Health 1988;78:1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
440.McKinney, WP, Horowitz, MM, Battiola, RJ. Susceptibility of hospitalbased health care personnel to varicella-zoster virus infections. Am J Infect Control 1989;17:2630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
441.Weber, DJ, Rutala, WA, Hamilton, H. Prevention and control of varicella-zoster infections in healthcare facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:694705.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
442.American Academy of Pediatrics. Summaries of infectious diseases: varicella-zoster infections. In: Peter, G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997:573585.Google Scholar
443.Asano, Y, Iwayama, S, Miyata, T, Yazaki, T, Ozaki, T, Tsuzuki, K, et al.Spread of varicella in hospitalized children having no direct contact with an indicator zoster case and its prevention by a live vaccine. Biken J 1980;23:157161.Google ScholarPubMed
444.Sawyer, MH, Chamberlin, CJ, Wu, YN, Aintablian, N, Wallace, MR. Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in air samples from hospital rooms. J Infect Dis 1994;169:9194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
445.LeClair, JM, Zaia, JA, Levin, MJ, Congdon, RG, Goldmann, DA. Airborne transmission of chickenpox in a hospital. N Engl J Med 1980;302:450453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
446.Gustafson, TL, Lavely, GB, Brawner, ER Jr, Hutcheson, RH, Wright, PF, Schaffner, W. An outbreak of airborne nosocomial varicella. Pediatrics 1982;70:550556.Google ScholarPubMed
447.Josephson, A, Gombert, M. Airborne transmission of nosocomial varicella from localized zoster. J Infect Dis 1988;158:238241.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
448.Ferson, MJ, Bell, SM, Robertson, PW. Determination and importance of varicella immune status of nursing staff in a children's hospital. J Hosp Infect 1990;15:347351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
449.Kelley, PW, Petruccelli, BP, Stehr-Green, P, Erickson, RL, Mason, CJ. The susceptibility of young adult Americans to vaccine-preventable infections: a national survey of US Army recruits. JAMA 1991;266:27242729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
450.Struewing, JP, Hyams, KC, Tueller, JE, Gray, GC. The risk of measles, mumps, and varicella among young adults: a serosurvey of US Navy and Marine Corps recruits. Am J Public Health 1993;83:17171720.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
451.Gershon, AA, Steinberg, SP, LaRussa, P, Ferrara, A, Hammerschlag, M, Gelb, L. Immunization of healthy adults with live attenuated varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 1988;158:132137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
452.Gardner, P, Eickhoff, T, Poland, GA, Gross, P, Griffin, M, LaForce, F, et al.Adult immunizations: recommendations of the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:3540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
453.White, CJ, Kuter, BJ, Ngai, A, Hildebrand, CS, Isganitis, KL, Patterson, CM, et al.Modified cases of chicken pox after varicella vaccination: correlation of protection with antibody response. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11:1923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
454.Bernstein, HH, Rothstein, EP, Watson, BM, Reisinger, KS, Blatter, MM, Wellman, CO, et al.Clinical survey of natural varicella compared with breakthrough varicella after immunization with live attenuated Oka/Merck varicella vaccine. Pediatrics 1993;92:833837.Google ScholarPubMed
455.Weibel, RE, Neff, BJ, Kuter, BJ, Guess, HA, Rothenberger, CA, Fitzgerald, AJ, et al.Live attenuated varicella vaccine: efficacy trial in healthy children. N Engl J Med 1984;310:14091415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
456.Tsolia, M, Gershon, AA, Steinberg, SP, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group. Live attenuated varicella vaccine: evidence that the vaccine virus is attenuated and the importance of skin lesions is transmission of varicella-zoster virus. J Pediatr 1990;116:184189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
457.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-related deaths among adults—United States, 1997. MMWR 1997;46:409412.Google ScholarPubMed
458.Wallace, MR, Bowler, WA, Murray, NB, Brodine, SK, Oldfield, ECI. Treatment of adult varicella with oral acyclovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:358363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
459.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:587627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
460.Balkovic, ES, Goodman, RA, Rose, FB, Borel, CO. Nosocomial influenza A (H1N1) infection. Am J Med Tech 1980;46:318320.Google ScholarPubMed
461.Evans, ME, Hall, KL, Berry, SE. Influenza control in acute care hospitals. Am J Infect Control 1997;25:357362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
462.Kapila, R, Lintz, DI, Tecson, FT, Ziskin, L, Louria, DB. A nosocomial outbreak of influenza A. Chest 1977;71:576579.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
463.Kimball, AM, Foy, HM, Cooney, MK, Allan, ID, Matlock, M, Plourde, JJ. Isolation of respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses from the sputum of patients hospitalized with pneumonia. J Infect Dis 1983; 147:181184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
464.Van Voris, LP, Belshe, RB, Shaffer, JL. Nosocomial influenza B virus infection in the elderly. Ann Intern Med 1982;96:153158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
465.Pachucki, CT, Walsh Pappas, SA, Fuller, GF, Krause, SL, Lentino, JR, Schaoff, DM. Influenza A among hospital personnel and patients: implications for recognition, prevention, and control. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:7780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
466.Centers for Disease Control. Suspected nosocomial influenza cases in an intensive care unit. MMWR 1988;37:34, 9.Google Scholar
467.Hammond, GW, Cheang, M. Absenteeism among hospital staff during an influenza epidemic: implications for immunoprophylaxis. Can Med Assoc J 1984;131:449452.Google ScholarPubMed
468.Horman, JT, Stetler, HC, Israel, E, Sorley, O, Schiper, MT, Joseph, JM. An outbreak of influenza A in a nursing home. Am J Public Health 1986;76:501504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
469.Patriarca, PA, Weber, JA, Parker, RA, Orenstein, WA, Hall, WN, Kendal, AP, et al.Risk factors for outbreaks of influenza in nursing homes: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124:114119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
470.Centers for Disease Control. Outbreak of influenza A in a nursing home—New York, December 1991-January 1992. MMWR 1992;41:129131.Google Scholar
471.Gross, PA, Rodstein, M, LaMontagne, JR, Kaslow, RA, Saah, AJ, Wallenstein, S, et al.Epidemiology of acute respiratory illness during an influenza outbreak in a nursing home. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:559561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
472.Cartter, ML, Renzullo, PO, Helgerson, SD, Martin, SM, Jekel, JF. Influenza outbreaks in nursing homes: how effective is influenza vaccine in the institutionalized elderly? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:473478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
473.Bean, B, Moore, BM, Sterner, B, Peterson, LR, Gerding, DN, Balfour, HH Jr. Survival of influenza viruses on environmental surfaces. J Infect Dis 1982;146:4751.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
474.Kilbourne, ED, ed. Influenza. New York, NY: Plenum Medical Book; 1987.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
475.Hall, CB, Douglas, RG. Nosocomial influenza infection as a cause of intercurrent fevers in infants. Pediatrics 1975;55:673677.Google ScholarPubMed
476.Noble, GR. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of influenza. In: Beare, AS, ed. Applied Influenza Research. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1982:1149.Google Scholar
477.Adal, KA, Flowers, RH, Anglim, AM, Hayden, FG, Titus, MG, Coyner, BJ, et al.Prevention of nosocomial influenza. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:641648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
478.Nichol, KL, Margolis, KL, Lind, A, Murdoch, M, McFadden, R, Hauge, M, et al.Side effects associated with influenza vaccination in healthy working adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:15461550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
479.Arden, NH, Patriarca, PA, Fasano, MB, Lui, KJ, Harmon, MW, Kendal, AP, et al.The roles of vaccination and amantadine prophylaxis in controlling an outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a nursing home. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:865868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
480.Falsey, AR, Cunningham, CK, Barker, WH, Kouides, RW, Yeun, JB, Menegus, M, et al.Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A infections in the hospitalized elderly. J Infect Dis 1995;172:389394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
481.Valenti, WM, Clarke, TA, Hall, CB, Menegus, MA, Shapiro, DL. Concurrent outbreaks of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in an intensive care nursery: epidemiology and associated risk factors. J Pediatr 1982;100:722726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
482.Hall, CB. Respiratory syncytial virus: its transmission in the hospital environment. Yale J Biol Med 1982;55:219223.Google ScholarPubMed
483.Snydman, DR, Greer, C, Meissner, HC, McIntosh, K. Prevention of nosocomial transmission of respiratory syncytial virus in a newborn nursery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1988;9:105108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
484.Harrington, RD, Hooton, TM, Hackman, RC, Storch, GA, Osborne, B, Gleaves, CA, et al.An outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a bone marrow transplant center. J Infect Dis 1992;165:987993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
485.Guidry, GG, Black-Payne, CA, Payne, DK, Jamison, RM, George, RB, Bocchini, JA Jr. Respiratory syncytial virus infection among intubated adults in a university medical intensive care unit. Chest 1991;100:13771384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
486.Falsey, AR. Noninfluenza respiratory virus infection in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:602608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
487.Sorvillo, FJ, Huie, SF, Strassburg, MA, Butsumyo, A, Shandera, WX, Fannin, SL. An outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in a nursing home for the elderly. J Infect 1984;9:252256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
488.Valenti, WM, Hruska, JF, Menegus, MA, Freeburn, MJ. Nosocomial viral infections, III: guidelines for prevention and control of exanthe-matous viruses, gastroenteritis viruses, picornaviruses, and uncommonly seen viruses. Infect Control 1980;2:3849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
489.Siegel, JD. Risks and exposures for the pregnant health-care worker. In: Olmstead, RN, ed. APIC Infection Control and Applied Epidemiology: Principles and Practice. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1996:22-1, 2228.Google Scholar
490.Valenti, WM. Infection control and the pregnant health care worker. Nurs Clin North Am 1993;28:673686.Google ScholarPubMed
491.Shortridge-McCauley, LA. Reproductive hazards: an overview of exposures to health care workers. AAOHN J 1995;43:614621.Google ScholarPubMed
492.Pike, RM. Past and present hazards of working with infectious agents. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978;102:333336.Google ScholarPubMed
493.Pike, RM. Laboratory-associated infections: incidence, fatalities, causes, and prevention. Annu Rev Microbiol 1979;33:4166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
494.Favero, MS. Biological hazards in the laboratory. Lab Med 1987;18:665670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
495.Jacobson, JT, Orlob, RB, Clayton, JL. Infections acquired in clinical laboratories in Utah. J Clin Microbiol 1985;21:486489.Google ScholarPubMed
496.Grist, NR, Emslie, JAN. Infections in British clinical laboratories, 198687. J Clin Pathol 1989;42:677681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
497.Vesley, D, Hartmann, HM. Laboratory-acquired infections and injuries in clinical labor