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Epidemiology and Outcomes of Hospitalizations with Complicated Skin and Skin-Structure Infections: Implications of Healthcare-Associated Infection Risk Factors

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2015

Marya D. Zilberberg*
Affiliation:
School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts Evi, MedResearch Group, Goshen, Massachusetts
Andrew F. Shorr
Affiliation:
Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC
Scott T. Micek
Affiliation:
Barnes Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri
Alex P. Hoban
Affiliation:
Barnes Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri
Victor Pham
Affiliation:
BJC Healthcare, St. Louis, Missouri
Joshua A. Doherty
Affiliation:
BJC Healthcare, St. Louis, Missouri
Andrew M. Ramsey
Affiliation:
Evi, MedResearch Group, Goshen, Massachusetts
Marin H. Kollef
Affiliation:
Barnes Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri
*
PO Box 303, Goshen, MA 01032 (Marya@evimedgroup.org)

Abstract

Objective.

Healthcare-associated infections are likely to be caused by drug-resistant and possibly mixed organisms and to be treated with inappropriate antibiotics. Because prompt appropriate treatment is associated with better outcomes, we studied the epidemiology of healthcare-associated complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs).

Patients.

Persons hospitalized with cSSSI and a positive culture result.

Methods.

We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study from April 2006 through December 2007. We differentiated healthcare-associated from community-acquired cSSSIs by at least 1 of the following risk factors: (1) recent hospitalization, (2) recent antibiotics, (3) hemodialysis, and (4) transfer from a nursing home. Inappropriate treatment was defined as no antimicrobial therapy with activity against the offending pathogen(s) within 24 hours after collection of a culture specimen. Mixed infections were those caused by both a gram-positive and a gram-negative organism.

Results.

Among 717 hospitalized patients with cSSSI, 527 (73.5%) had healthcare-associated cSSSI. Gram-negative organisms were more common (relative risk, 1.24 [95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.35) and inappropriate treatment trended toward being more common (odds ratio, 1.29 [95% confidence interval, 0.85–1.95]) in healthcare-associated cSSSI than in community-acquired cSSSI. Mixed cSSSIs occurred in 10.6% of patients with healthcare-associated cSSSI and 6.3% of those with community-acquired cSSSI (P = .082) and were more likely to be treated inappropriately than to be nonmixed infections (odds ratio, 2.42 [95% confidence interval, 1.43–4.10]). Both median length of hospital stay (6.2 vs 2.9 days; P < .001) and mortality rate (6.6% vs 1.1%; P = .003) were significantly higher for healthcare-associated cSSSI than community-acquired cSSSI.

Conclusions.

Healthcare-associated cSSSIs are common and are likely to be caused by gram-negative organisms. Mixed infections carry a <2-fold greater risk of inappropriate treatment. Healthcare-associated cSSSIs are associated with increased mortality and prolonged length of hospital stay, compared with community-acquired cSSSIs.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America 2009

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