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Descriptive evaluation of antibody responses to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid in a nursing home cohort—Arkansas, June–August 2020

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 November 2021

Nicole E. Brown*
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Amanda K. Lyons
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Amy J. Schuh
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Megan M. Stumpf
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Jennifer L. Harcourt
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Azaibi Tamin
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Mohammad Ata Ur Rasheed
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Lisa Mills
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Sandra N. Lester
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Natalie J. Thornburg
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Kenny Nguyen
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Veronica Costantini
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Jan Vinjé
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Jennifer Y. Huang
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Sarah E. Gilbert
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Paige Gable
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Susan Bollinger
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Sarah Sabour
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Elizabeth Beshearse
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Diya Surie
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Caitlin Biedron
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Christopher J. Gregory
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Nakia S. Clemmons
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Brett Whitaker
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Melissa M. Coughlin
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Kathryn A. Seely
Affiliation:
Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, Arkansas
Kelley Garner
Affiliation:
Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, Arkansas
Trent Gulley
Affiliation:
Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, Arkansas
Tafarra Haney
Affiliation:
Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, Arkansas
Atul Kothari
Affiliation:
Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, Arkansas
Naveen Patil
Affiliation:
Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, Arkansas
Alison Laufer Halpin
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
L. Clifford McDonald
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Preeta K. Kutty
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Allison C. Brown
Affiliation:
COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
*
Author for correspondence: Nicole E. Brown, E-mail: NBrown6@cdc.gov

Abstract

Objective:

To characterize and compare severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–specific immune responses in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from nursing home residents during and after natural infection.

Design:

Prospective cohort.

Setting:

Nursing home.

Participants:

SARS-CoV-2–infected nursing home residents.

Methods:

A convenience sample of 14 SARS-CoV-2–infected nursing home residents, enrolled 4–13 days after real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, were followed for 42 days. After diagnosis, plasma SARS-CoV-2–specific pan-Immunoglobulin (Ig), IgG, IgA, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies were measured at 5 time points, and GCF SARS-CoV-2–specific IgG and IgA were measured at 4 time points.

Results:

All participants demonstrated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among 12 phlebotomized participants, plasma was positive for pan-Ig and IgG in all 12 participants. Neutralizing antibodies were positive in 11 participants; IgM was positive in 10 participants, and IgA was positive in 9 participants. Among 14 participants with GCF specimens, GCF was positive for IgG in 13 participants and for IgA in 12 participants. Immunoglobulin responses in plasma and GCF had similar kinetics; median times to peak antibody response were similar across specimen types (4 weeks for IgG; 3 weeks for IgA). Participants with pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA detected in plasma and GCF IgG remained positive throughout this evaluation, 46–55 days after diagnosis. All participants were viral-culture negative by the first detection of antibodies.

Conclusions:

Nursing home residents had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma and GCF after infection. Kinetics of antibodies detected in GCF mirrored those from plasma. Noninvasive GCF may be useful for detecting and monitoring immunologic responses in populations unable or unwilling to be phlebotomized.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America

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Footnotes

a

Authors of equal contribution.

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