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A Comprehensive Water Management Program for Multicampus Healthcare Facilities

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 May 2016

Dale A. Krageschmidt
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
Allen F. Kubly
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
Mark S. Browning
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
Alan J. Wright
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
Jon D. Lonneman
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
Martin J. Detmer
Phigenics, Naperville, Illinois
William F. McCoy*
Phigenics, Naperville, Illinois
1701 Quincy Avenue, Suite 32, Naperville, IL 60540 (



Develop and implement an effective program for hazard analysis and control of waterborne pathogens at a multicampus hospital with clinics.


A longitudinal study. Several-year study including analysis of results from monitoring and tests of 26 building water systems.


Outpatient and inpatient healthcare facilities network.


The hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) process was used to develop a water management program (WMP) for the hospital campuses. The HACCP method systematically addressed 3 questions: (1) What are the potential waterborne hazards in the building water systems of these facilities? (2) How are the hazards being controlled? (3) How do we know that the hazards have been controlled? Microbiological and chemical tests of building water samples were used to validate the performance of the WMP; disease surveillance data further validated effective hazard control.


Hazard analysis showed that waterborne pathogens were generally in good control and that the water quality was good in all facilities. The hospital network has had several legionellosis cases that were identified as presumptive hospital acquired, but none was confirmed or substantiated by water testing in follow-up investigations. Building water system studies unrelated to these cases showed that pressure tanks and electronic automatic faucets required additional hazard control.


Application of the HACCP process for long-term building water systems management was practical and effective. The need for critical control point management of temperature, flow, and oxidant (chlorine) residual concentration was emphasized. The process resulted in discovery of water system components requiring additional hazard control.

Original Article
Copyright © The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America 2014

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