Published online by Cambridge University Press: 24 February 2017
This forum on the nature of American Education in the twentieth century revolves around the major themes in Paula S. Fass's Outside In: Minorities and the Transformation of American Education (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989). Because of the diverse subjects explored and analyzed in Outside In, the editors of the HEQ invited three leading scholars to respond to the volume, and Professor Pass also kindly agreed to reply to their commentaries. We are extremely grateful to Professors V. P. Franklin of Drexel University; Lynn D. Gordon of the University of Rochester; Maxine Schwartz Seller of the University at Buffalo, State University of New York; and, of course, Paula S. Fass of the University of California at Berkeley, for their willingness to share their perspectives on a broad range of issues with our readers.
1. For a detailed discussion of the similarities in the educational policies affecting African American students before and after the introduction of mental tests, see Franklin, V. P., The Education of Black Philadelphia: The Social and Educational History of a Minority Community, 1900–1950 (Philadelphia, 1979), 35–59.
2. Ibid. See also, Mohraz, Judy Jolley, The Separate Problem: Case Studies of Black Education in the North, 1900–1930 (Westport, Conn., 1979); Homel, Michael W., Down from Equality: Black Chicagoans and the Public Schools, 1920–41 (Urbana, Ill., 1984); and Franklin, V. P., “Black Social Scientists and the Mental Testing Movement, 1920–1940,” in Black Psychology, ed. Jones, Reginald, 2d ed. (New York, 1980), 201–15.
3. African American support for federal aid to public education can be traced back at least to the 1880s and 1890s during the debate over Senator Henry Blair's proposed legislation for federal aid to public education. See Lee, Gordon C., The Struggle for Federal Aid: First Phase—Federal Aid for the Common Schools (New York, 1949), 88–98; Curry, J. L. M., “Difficulties, Complications, and Limitations Connected with the Education of the Negro,” Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 1894–95 (Washington, D.C., 1896), 2: 1367–74.