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Introduction to Intoxicants and Early Modern European Globalization

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 April 2021

Kathryn James*
Beinecke Library, Yale University, New Haven, USA
Phil Withington*
Department of History, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK


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1 Robinson, Henry W. and Adams, Walter, eds., The diary of Robert Hooke 1672–1680 (London, 1968)Google Scholar; Henderson, Felicity, ‘Unpublished material from the memorandum book of Robert Hooke, Guildhall Library MS’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 61 (2007), pp. 129–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2 Shapin, Steven, was, ‘Whycustom a second nature” in early modern medicine?’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 93 (2019), pp. 126CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, at pp. 4–5; Mulligan, Lotte, ‘Self-scrutiny and the study of nature: Robert Hooke's diary as natural history author’, Journal of British Studies, 35 (1996), pp. 311–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 Shapin, Steven, ‘Who was Robert Hooke?’, in Hunter, Michael and Schaffer, Simon, eds., Robert Hooke: new studies (Woodbridge, 1989), pp. 253–86Google Scholar; Iliffe, Robert, ‘Material doubts: Hooke, artisan culture and the exchange of information in 1670s London’, British Journal for the History of Science, 28 (1995), pp. 285318CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

4 Withington, Phil, ‘Where was the coffee in early modern England?’, Journal of Modern History, 92 (2020), pp. 4075CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

5 For rumours about opium, see Robinson and Adams, Diary of Robert Hooke, p. 52. See also ibid., pp. 8–9, 11, 19–20, 42, 135, 203, 220; Henderson, ‘Unpublished material’, pp. 136–7, 144, 146–51. For cannabis, see Philosophical experiments and observations of the late eminent Dr Robert Hooke (London, 1726), pp. 210–12. Thanks to Dr Vera Keller for the reference about bangue.

6 Brian Cowan, The social life of coffee: the emergence of the British coffeehouse (New Haven, CT, 2005); Markman Ellis, The coffee house: a cultural history (London, 2004); Markman Ellis, Richard Coulton, and Matthew Mauger, Empire of tea: the Asian leaf that conquered the world (London, 2015); Nuala Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies: London and the Atlantic economy 1660–1700 (Cambridge, 2010); Sidney Mintz, Sweetness and power: the place of sugar in modern history (New York, NY, 1986); Taylor, Alexander, ‘Tobacco retail licences and state formation in early modern England and Wales’, Economic History Review, 72 (2019), pp. 433–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at pp. 440, 447; Wallis, Patrick, ‘Exotic drugs and English medicine: England's drug trade, c. 1550–1800’, Journal of Social History, 25 (2011), pp. 2046Google Scholar, at pp. 21–6.

7 Smith, S. D., ‘Accounting for taste: British coffee consumption in historical perspective’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 27 (1996), pp. 183214CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Woodruff D. Smith, ‘From coffeehouse to parlour: the consumption of coffee, tea and sugar in north-western Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries’, in Jordan Goodman, Paul E. Lovejoy, and Andrew Sherratt, eds., Consuming habits: drugs in history and anthropology (London, 1996), pp. 148–64; Jon Stobart, Sugar and spice: grocers and groceries in provincial England, 1650—1830 (Oxford, 2013).

8 David T. Courtwright, Forces of habit: drugs and the making of the modern world (Cambridge, MA, 2001), pp. 19–22.

9 See, for example, Robinson and Adams, Diary of Robert Hooke, pp. 311–12, 329, 334, 341, 344.

10 Ibid., pp. 165, 215, 247, 265, 272.

11 Withington, Phil, ‘Intoxicants and the invention of consumption’, Economic History Review, 73 (2020), pp. 384408CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

12 Courtwright, Forces of habit; Virginia Berridge, Demons: our changing attitudes to alcohol, tobacco, and drugs (Oxford, 2013).

13 Withington, Phil, ‘Cultures of intoxication’, Past & Present, 222, suppl. 9 (2014), pp. 933CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at pp. 12–14.

14 Richard Unger, Beer in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Philadelphia, PA, 2004).

15 W. B. Stephens, ‘English wine imports c. 1603–1640, with special reference to the Devon ports’, in Audrey Erskine, Margery M. Rowe, and Todd Gray, eds., Tudor and Stuart Devon: the common estate and government. Essays presented to Joyce Youings (Exeter, 1992), pp. 141–72; Ann Tlusty, ‘Water of life, water of death: the controversy over brandy and gin in early modern Augsburg’, Central European History, 31 (1998), pp. 1–30; John Chartres, ‘No English Calvados? English distillers and the cider industry in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries’, in John Chartres and David Hey, English rural society 1500–1800: essays in honour of Joan Thirsk (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 313–43.

16 Wallis, ‘Exotic drugs and English medicine’; Harold J. Cook, Matters of exchange: commerce, medicine, and science in the Dutch Golden Age (New Haven, CT, 2007).

17 Zahedieh, The capital and the colonies, esp. ch. 5; Marcy Norton, Sacred gifts, profane pleasures: a history of tobacco and chocolate in the Atlantic world (Ithaca, NY, 2005); Ellis, Coulton, and Mauger, Empire of tea.

18 Stuart B. Schwartz, ed., Tropical Babylons: sugar and the making of the Atlantic world, 1450–1680 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2004); Jonathan Morris, Coffee: a global history (London, 2019); Ben Breen, The age of intoxication: origins of the global drug trade (Philadelphia, PA, 2019).

19 Menard, Russell, ‘Plantation empire: how sugar and tobacco planters built their industries and raised an empire’, Agricultural History, 81 (2007), pp. 309–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

20 The story is told in Jan de Vries, European urbanization, 1500–1800 (London, 1984).

21 John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The economy of British America, 1607–1789 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1991).

22 See also the articles by Zahedieh, Peterson, Stern, and Burnard in this special issue.

23 Anne E. C. McCants, ‘Global history and the history of consumption: congruence and divergence’, in Manuel Perez Garcia and Lucio De Sousa, eds., Global approaches and new polycentric approaches: Europe, Asia and the Americas in a world network system (Singapore, 2018), pp. 241–53; Julia Zinkina et al., A big history of globalization: the emergence of a global world system (Cham, 2019).

24 Robinson and Adams, Diary of Robert Hooke, pp. 83, 103, 107, 129.

25 Henderson, ‘Unpublished material’, pp. 136–7, 152.

26 Ibid., p. 137.

27 Robinson and Adams, Diary of Robert Hooke, p. 212.

28 Ibid., p. 274.

29 Ibid., p. 118.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid., p. 216.

32 Courtwright, Forces of habit; Breen, Age of intoxication.

33 For discussions, see Mancell, Peter C., Deadly medicine: Indians and alcohol in early America (Ithaca, NY, 1995)Google Scholar; Earle, Rebecca, ‘Indians and drunkenness in Spanish America’, Past & Present, 222, suppl. 9 (2014), pp. 8199CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at pp. 81–6.

34 For useful syntheses in an English context, see Wrightson, Keith, English society, 1580–1680 (London, 1982)Google Scholar; idem., Earthly necessities: economic lives in early modern Britain, 1470–1750 (New Haven, CT, 2000).

35 For introductions, see Reckwitz, Andreas, ‘Toward a theory of social practices: a development in culturalist theorizing’, European Journal of Social Theory, 5 (2002), pp. 243–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Shove, Elizabeth, Pantzar, Mika, and Watson, Matt, The dynamics of social practice: everyday life and how it changes (London, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.