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John Chrysostom on Almsgiving and the Use of Money*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2011

Blake Leyerle
Affiliation:
University of Notre Dame

Extract

Few themes so dominate the homilies of John Chrysostom (ca. 347–407 CE) as the plight of the poor and the necessity of almsgiving. His picture of the poor, however, is always set against the prosperous marketplace of late antiquity. It seems therefore scarcely surprising that his sermons on almsgiving resound with the language of investment. With such imagery, Chrysostom tried not only to prod wealthy Christians into acts of charity but also, and perhaps more importantly, to dislodge his rich parishioners from their conviction that an uncrossable social gulf separated them from the poor. The rhetorical strategy he used is typical of all his polemical attacks. On the one hand, he denigrated the pursuit of money and social status as fundamentally unattractive; it is both unchristian and unmasculine. On the other hand, he insisted that real wealth and lasting prestige should indeed be pursued, but more effectively through almsgiving. I shall first examine how Chrysostom effected this recalculation of wealth, and then I shall turn to the question of whether there may have been some advantage for him in pleading so eloquently on behalf the poor.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © President and Fellows of Harvard College 1994

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References

1 Libanius Or. 11.251–55 (ed. Richard Foerster; Stuttgart: Teubner, 1903) 526–27; the translation is that of Downey, Glanville, “Libanius' Oration in Praise of Antioch (Or. xi),” The Proceedings of the American Philological Society 103 (1959) 679–80Google Scholar; τῆς δ αὖ τῶν ὠνίων κέριουσίας τί μὲν ἀϕθονώτερον, τί δὲ διαρκέστερον; ἂ διὰ πάσης μὲν οὕτω κέχυται τῆς πόλεως, ὡς μᾐ μέρος τί τῆς πόλεως ἔν ἀγορὰν κεκλῆσθαι μηδὲ δεῖν είς ἔν τι συνελθεῖν ὠνησομένους, ἀλλὰ πᾶσιν ὲν ποσὶν εἶναι καὶ πρὸ θυρῶν καὶ πανταχοῦ χεῖρα ἐκτείναντι λαβεῖν ὑπάρχειν. … ὧν δὲ εἰς χρείαν ἦλθε, ταῦτα οὐδεὶς ἐζήτησεν ἀπόντα. … λαμπρὰ δὲ οὖσα τῷν ᾠνίων ή κατασκεεὴ τῷ διηνεκεῖ πλέον τεθαύμασται. Libanius also noted that the market was full all day (Or. 11.169).

2 Chrysostom Adpopulum Antiochenum de statuts 17.14 (PG 49. 179) “Оταν ἐθέλης τῆς πόλεως εἰπεῖν ἐλκώμιον, μή μοι τὴν Δάϕνην εἵπης τὸ προάστειον, μηδὲ τὸ πλῆθος καὶ μῆκος τῶν κυπαρίσσων, μηδὲ τὰς πηγὰτων τῶν ύδάτων, μηδὲ τὸ πογγοὺς τὴν πόλιν οίκεῖν ἀνθρώπους, μηδὲ τὀ μηέχρι βαθυτάτης ἐσπέρας ἐπί τῆς ἀγορᾶς διατρίβειν μετὰ ἀδείας πογγῆς, μηδὲ τῶν ώνίων τὴν ἀϕθονίαν.

3 Ibid., 2.2 (PG 49. 36) Eἰ δέ τις… ἐθελήσειεν εἰς ἀγορἀν ἐμβαλεîν, ὑπὀ τῆς ὅψεως τῆς ἀτερπῦς εὐθέως εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εἰσελαύνεται τὴν έαυτοû, ἕνα που καὶ δύο μόλις όρῶν συγκεκυϕότας, καὶ μετὰ πολλῆς βαδίζοντας τῆς κατηηϕείας, ἕνθα πρὸ ὀλίγων ήμερῶν ποταμῶν ῤεύματα τὸ πλῆθος ἀπέκρυπτεν.

4 Chrysostom Panegyrium in Babylam martyrem 2 (PG 50. 531) “Iστε γὰρ δήπου καὶ μέμνησθε, πῶς κενὴ μὲν ἦν ὠνἰων ἠ ἀγορὰ μεστὰ δὲ θορύβων τἀ ἐ;ργαστήρια, ήκάστου ϕιλονεικοῦντος τὀ ϕανίων προαρπάσαι, καὶ ἀπελθεῖν.

5 Chrysostom Hom, in Matt. 20.2 (PG 57. 289) Оὐδἐν γὰρ οὕτω χρημάττων ἐρᾷν παρασκευάζει, ὡς ό τῆς δόξης ἕρως … ἵνα τοῖς πολλοῖς ἐπιδείξωνται.

6 Chrysostom Hom, in Gen. 22.7 (PG 53. 195) 'Аλλὰ τῶν κακῶν ἀπάντων τὸ αἵτιον ὴ κενοδοξία καὶ τὸ βούλεσθαι τὴν προσηγορίαν ἐπικεῖσθαι τὴν αὑτοῦ τοῖς ἀγροῖς βαλανείοις, ταîς οἰκίαις; see also ibid., 30.2 (PG 53. 275).

7 Chrysostom Ad populum Antiochenum de statuts 15.7 (PG 49. 161) Πολλάκις γοῦν μάχης γινομένης ὑβριζόμενοι ϕέρμεν γενναίως, καὶ πρὀς τὀν ὑβρίζοντα λέγομεν Тί σοι ποιήσω; О δεῖνά με κωλύει, ὁ προστάτης ὁ σὸς, ἐκεῖνός μου κατέχει τὰς χεῖρας.

8 Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew, “Patronage in Roman Society from Republic to Empire,” in idem, ed., Patronage in Ancient Society (London/New York: Routledge, 1989) 83.Google Scholar

9 Chrysostom Panegyrium in Ignatium martyrem 1 (PG 50. 587); idem, Hom, in Eph. 20.7 (PG 62. 144).

10 Chrysostom Hom, in Eph. 20.7 (PG 62. 144) οἰκτῶν ἀγέλας ἕχει καὶ εὐνούχων ἐσμόν; idem, Hom, in Rom. 11.5 (PG 60. 491) ὁ τοῦ ἵππου χαλινὸς πολλῷ τῷ χρυσῶ; idem, Hom, in Matt. 20.2 (PG 57. 289) Διὰ γοῦν τοῦτο καὶ τὰς τῶν ἀνδραπόδων ἀγέλας, καὶ τὸν ἐσμ?sμὸν εὐνούχων, καὶ τοὺς χρυσοϕοῦντας ἵππους; idem, Hom. in Matt. 49.5 (PG 58. 501) ὅταν γὰρ τὰ νήματαα σηρικὰ, ἅ μηδὲ ἐν ἱμάτοις ὑϕαίνεσθαι καλὸν, ταῦτα ἐν ὑποδήμασι διαππάπτητε.

11 Chrysostom Hom, in Eph. 17.2 (PG 62. 120) Кαὶ πάλιν ἕτεροί ϕασιν Оύαί σοι μαμμωνᾶ, καὶ τῷ μὴ ἕχοντί σε; idem, Hom, in Heb. 15.3 (PG 63. 121) Оύαί σοι, μαμωνᾶ [sic], καὶ τῷ μὴ ἕχοντί σε!

12 On the importance of urban munificence, see Patlagean, Evelyne, Pauvreté économique et pauvreté sociale à Byzance (Paris/The Hague: Mouton, 1977) 182–83Google Scholar; see also Brown, Peter, The Making of Late Antiquity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978)Google Scholar esp. 27–55; Liebeschuetz, J. H. W. G., Antioch: City and Imperial Administration in the Later Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon, 1972) 204.Google Scholar

13 Libanius Or. 11.134–38 (ed. Foerster, 481; trans. Downey, “Libanius' Oration,” 667) ἥδιον μὲν δαπανώμενοι περὶ τόλιν ἥ κερδαίνουσιν ἕτεροι. … ὂ γὰρ ἀλλαχοῦ τῷ κερδαίνειν ἕπεται, τοῦτο τῆδε τῷ δαπανᾶσθαι συνέξευκται.

14 Chrysostom Hom. in 1 Cor. 21.5–6 (PG 61. 177) Eἰσὶν ἕτεροι πένητες κοûφοι καο μνέέωροι τῦς ΨνХῦς καο οὑδότες φέρειν λιμὸν άλλων, ἢτωûτω ὑπωμένωντες Оὗτωι πωλλάκις ὑμîν έλεεινωîς καο σХήμασι καο ῥήμασιν ἐντυХόντες, ἐπειδὴ ωὐδὲν ὤνησαν τὰς ίκετηρίας ἐκείνας, τωὺς θαυματωπωιωὺς ὑμîν λωιπὸν παρήλασαν, ωἱ μὲν δήρματα ὑπωδημάτων μαωδώμενι πεπωνηκότων, ωἱ δὲ κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς ἥλωνς ὀξεîς διαπείρωντες, ἕτερωι πεπηγόσιν ὕδασιν ὑπὸ τωû κρνμωû γνμνῆ τῆ γαστρὶ πρωσωμιλωûντες, ἄλλωι δὲ ἕτερα άτωπώτερα τωύτων ὑπωμένωντες, ἵνα τὸ πωνηρν περιστήσωσι θήατρων. (ζ) Σὺ, τωύτων γινωμένων, ἕστηκας γελῶν, καὶ θανμάζων, καὶ ἐμπωμπεύων τωîς. … Eἶ τα ἵνα πρωθυμότερων πωιήση ταûα, δαΨιλήστερων δίδως ἀργύριων.

15 Ibid., 21.6 (PG 61. 179) ]Aλλὰ τίς ὁ πωλὺτῶν λόγως. …” EХει τὸν <ῆς ]Eκκληρίας, μφδὲ ἀπωλωγίαν εἶναι νωμίζωμεν τὸ τὴν ]Eκκληρίαν πωλλὰ κεκτῆρθαι.

16 Ibid., 21.5 (PG 61. 176) ]Aλλὰ πρωφαρίζεται, φηρὶ, τὸν τρόμων καὶ τὴν ἀρθέν-ειαν.

17 Ibid., 21.5 (PG 61. 177) Тωûτων εὐθύναζ ἀκριβεαζ; idem, In Lazarum 2.5–6 (PG 48. 989) Тόû γὰρ φιλωφρωσύνην ἐπιδεικνύμενων ωὐκ εὐθύναζ ἀπαιτεîν δεî βίωυ, ἀλλὰ μόνων τὴν πενίαν διωρθωûν, καὶ τὴν Хρείαν πληρωûν. … Oὕτω καὶ ἡμεîζ πωιῶμεν, παρακαλῶ, μηδὲν ἀκριβωλωγωύμενωι πέρα τωû δέωντωζ.

18 Chrysostom Homilia in paralyticum demissum per tectum 1 (PG 51. 49) Eἰπόντι γὰρ αύτῷ, θέλειζ ὑγιὴζ γενέσθαι; ωὐδὲν ωἶπεν ωἶκὸζ ἦν, ὅτι [Oρᾷζ με παραλελυμένων Хρόνων τωσωûτων κατακειμείνων, καὶ έρωτᾷς εἰ βωύλωμαι γενέσθαι ὑγιὴς ἐπεμβῆναῆ μωυ τωîς καωîς ἦλθες, όνειδίσαι, καὶ έρωτᾷς εἰ βωύλωμαι γενέσθαι ὑγιὴς ἐπεμβῆναί μωυ τωîς κακωîς ἦλθες, ὀνειδίσαι, καὶ καταγελάσαι, καὶ κωμῳδῆσαι τὴν συμφωράν; compare idem, Hom. in Rom. 21.5 (PG 60. 608).

19 Chrysostom Hom. in John 65.3 (PG 59. 364) ἦ γρ ἂν παρὰ τὴν ἀρХὴν ἐνετέθη. νûν δὲ Хἰυσίων ωὐκ ἦν ἄνωθεν, ωὐδὲ ἤρα τις Хρυσίωυ. ]Аλλ[ εἰ βωύλεσθε, λέγω πθεν εἰσῆλθε τὸ κακόν.[]Эκαστως τὸν πρὸ αὐτωû ζέλωûντες ἐπέτεινων τὸ νόσημα, καὶ τὸν ωὐ βωυλόμενων ὁ πρωλαβὼν ἐρεθίζει. “Оταν γὰρ ἴδωσιν ωἰκίας λαμπὰς, καὶ πλῆθως ἀνδων ἀγέλας, καὶ ἀργυρᾶ σκεύη, καὶ πωλὺν ἱματίων φωρυτὸν, πάντα πράττωυσιν, ᾥστε ὑπερβαλέσθαι. The Jews during the Exodus thus had a novel way of life: being fed by manna, they had no commerce or trade or craft (idem, Quod nemo laedatur nisi a seipso 13 [PG 52. 473–74]).

20 Chrysostom Hom. in John 28.3 (PG 59. 166). This sentiment is central to Chrysostom's thought; see idem, Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae 3.6–8 (PG 47. 357); idem, De laude Maximi et quales ducendae uxores 3.4 (PG 51. 231); idem, Hom. in Gen. 20.5 (PG 53. 173); see also Leduc, Francis, “Le Thème de la vaine gloire,” Proche-Orient Chrétien 19 (1969) 332.Google Scholar

21 Chrysostom Hom. in John 42.4 (PG 59. 243) δωωύλωυς ωὐХ ἑνὶ δεσπότη μόνων, ἀλλὰ καὶ δυσὶ καὶ τρισὶ καὶ μυρίωις διάφωρα έπιτάττωυσιν ὑπακωύωντας.

22 Traditional elitist prejudices emerge as Chrysostom glosses “the people” as πρᾶγμα θωρύβωυ γέμων καὶ ταραХῶδες, καὶ ἐξ ἀνωίας τὸ πλέων συγκείματα (“full of uproar and disorder and for the most part made up of thoughtlessness—just carried along like the waves of the sea”; Hom. in John 3.5 [PG 59. 44]).

23 Ibid., 80.3 (PG 59. 436) Оὗτои δὲ πоλλάκиς Хωρὶς ἐκείνоυ πανταХоῦ περиίασиν. ]Аλλ] ὁ δоκῶν εἶναи κύρиоς, ἂν μὴ παρῶиν оἱ δоûλои, оὐ τоλμᾷ πρоελθεîν оἴκоθεν, ἀλλὰ κἂν πρоκύΨη τῆς оἰκίας μόνоς, καταγέλατоν ἑαυτὸν εἶναи νоμίζεи. Compare idem, Hom. in Matt. 20.5 (PG 57. 293); and idem, Hom. in John 87.3–4 (PG 59. 477–78). One should regard wealth, along with the other passions, “from the position of masters and not slaves, in order to rule them and not be ruled by them, in order to put them to good use and not abuse them” (ἐν τάξεи δεπоτx1FF6;ν, κὶ μὴ δоύλоν, ᾥστε κρατεῖν αὐτῶν, καὶ μὴ κρατεῖσθαи ὑπ] αὐτῶν, ὥστε κεХρῆσθαи αὐτоῖς, καὶ μὴ παρακεХρῆσθα; idem, Hom. in John 19.3 [PG 59. 123]). See also idem, Hom. in John 59.4 [PG 59. 326]; idem, Hom. in 1 Cor. 19.4 [PG 61. 156]); idem, Hom. in Col. 7.3 (PG 62. 347). Chrysostom compared wealthy women who “cannot” go out without their mules to beggars who have had their feet cut off (De Virginitate 66.10–12 [SC 125. 334]).

24 Chrysostom Hom. in Col. 7.4 (PG 62. 349). For Chrysostom on cosmetics, see idem, Adhortationes ad Theodorum lapsum 1.13 (PG 47. 295–96); compare Hom. in Matt. 20.1 (PG 57. 287). By giving alms, a woman beautifies herself far more effectively than with cosmetics (idem, Hom. in John 69.3 [PG 59. 380]). Foucault, Michel has suggested (History of Sexuality, vol. 2: Use of Pleasure [trans. Hurley, Robert; New York: Random House, 1986] 161)Google Scholar that makeup and adornment formed an important theme in ancient morality texts, precisely because they posed the probleηm of the relationship between truth and the pleasures. Xenophon noted that women who use makeup “are found out while they are dressing in the morning: they perspire and are lost; a tear convicts them; the bath reveals them as they are” (ἢ γὰρἐξ εὐνῆς ἁλίσκονται ιανιστάμενοι, πρὶν παρασκευάσασθαι ἢ ὑπὸ ἱδρῶτος ἐλέγХοντι, ἢ ὑπὸ ὸακρύων βασανίζονται ἢ ὑπὸ λουτροῦ ἀληθινῶς κατωπτεύθησαν; Oec. 10.8 [LCL; 7 vols.; trans. E. C. Marchant; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979] 4. 451).

25 Chrysostom Quod nemo se laedatur nisi a seipso 9 (PG 52. 470) τὴν δὲ ἐναντίαν ἐκείνας, τοῖς ἐκείνης Хρώμασιν ἀναХρωννύς, καὶ οὕτων τοῖς ἠπατημένοις, καὶ πείθων ταύτην ἐκείνην εἶναι νομίζειν, οὐσαν τῆ φύσει, ἀλλὰ τῆ ὄΨει δοκοῦσαν εἶναι. Кαθάπερ γὰρ τὰ κάλλη τῶν ἑταιριζομένων γυναικῶν ἐπιτρίμμασι καὶ ὑπογραφαῖς συγκείς συγκείμενα, κάλλους μὲν ἀπεστέρηται, τὴν δὲ αἰσХρὰν ὄΨιν καὶ δυσειδῆ καλήν τε καὶ εὐειδῆ εἶναι ποιεῖ παρὰ τοῖς ὑπ] αὐτῆς ἠπατημένοις, οὐκ οὖσαν καλήν. οὕτω δὴ καὶ ὁ πλοῦτος τὴν κολακείαν βιαζόμενος τιμὴν δεικνύναι ποιεῖ. Compare idem, Quod nemo se laedatur nisi a seipso 6 (PG 52. 467); and idem. Ad viduam juniorem 5.344–63 (SC 138. 142–44). By definition, “a harlot knows not how to love, but only how to ensnare” (Πόρνη γὰρ φιλεῖν οὐκ ἐπίσταται, ἀλλ[ ἐπιβουλεύει μόνον; idem, Ad populom Antiochenum de statuis 14.4 [PG 49. 149]); see also Xenophon Oec. 1.13–23 (LCL, 4. 369–73).

26 Chrysostom Hom. in Heb. 15.3 (PG 63. 120–21) Тί γὰρ αἰσХρότερον ἀνδρὸς Χρημάτων ἐρῶντος; ὅσα αί ἑταиρизόμεναи γυναῖες, ὅσα αἱ ἐὶ τῆς οὐ παραиτοῦνταи ποиεῖν, τοσαῦτό ἐστи τὸ ἔγλημα, ὅτи τὸ σῶμα πωλοῦσи Хρημάτων ἕνεεν. ἀλλ] ἕХουσί τиνα ἀπολογίαν, τὴν πενία ν αὶ τὸναταναγάζοντα λиμόν …]Eνταûθα δὲ ἕστηκεν ὁ πλεον έκτης, ούκ ἐπὶ οἰκήματος, άλλ] ἐπὶ τῆς πόλεως μέσης. Кαὶ τοῦτο δὲ τών πορνῶν ἴδиόν ἐστиν, ὅτи τοῦ τὸ Хρуσίον δиδόντος εἰσί. κἒν γάρ δοῦύλος ἦ, κἄν ήλε?θεροσ, κάν μονομάХος, κάν ὁστиσο?ν, προτείνη δὲ τὸν μиσθόν, καταδέХονταи.… δиά τὸ Хρυσίον, καὶ ἀσХημόνως σуγγίνονταи. Similar imagery is used of the eunuch Eutropius after his fall; Chrysostom thus described his face: “denuded of its enamel and pigments by the action of adversity as by a sponge” (καθάπερ σπογγиᾷ τиνи τῆ μεταβολῆ τὰ ἐπиτρίμμοτα καὶ τὰς ἐπиγρφάς ἐκμάξασαν, In Eutropium eunuchum 1.3 [PG 52. 394]).

27 Clark, Elizabeth has pointed out (“Friendship Between the Sexes: Classical Theory and Christian Practice,” in idem, Jerome, Chrysostom and Friends. Essays and Translations [Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 1979] 5758)Google Scholar that, as with the related issue of ornamentation of dress, Chrysostom is chiefly concerned not with the enhancement of sexual appeal but with the issue of expense and misuse of money. As modern analyses suggest, the attraction of prostitution lies in the high earnings per hour. “Women enter the market willingly, for the money.… They think of themselves as business women” (Reynolds, Helen, The Economics of Prostitution [Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1986] 4, 6).Google Scholar As dancers were linked with prostitution in Chrysostom's mind, he suspects, “If I ask him, [Why ever have you given up other trades to go into this polluted and abominable one?] He will say that in it it is possible for one to gain much by doing little” (κἀκεῖνον μὲν ἐάν ἔρωμαи, τί δήποτε τὰς ἄλλας τέХνας ἀφεὶς, ἐπὶ ταύτην ἦλθες τὴν ἐναγῆ καὶ μиαράν;ἐρεῖ, ὅτи ἔξεστиν ὀλίγα πονοῦντα, πολλὰ καρποῦσθαи; Hom. in John 42.4 [PG 59. 244]).

28 Rubin, Gayle (“The Traffic in Women,” in Reiter, Rayna R., ed., Towards an Anthropology of Women [ New York: Monthly Review, 1975] 174)Google Scholar points to the difference between men as transactors and women as transacted bodies in kinship networks. See also the remarks of Alain Corbin (Women for Hire [ trans. Alan Sheridan; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990] 5–7) on the nineteenth-century French regulationist Alexandre-Jean-Baptiste Parent-Duchâtelet, who built up an anthropology of the woman belonging “to the class of public prostitution”; she symbolized “disorder, excess and improvidence” and was defined chiefly by marginality.

29 Chrysostom In Lazarum 3.10 (PG 48. 1006) Δ ύναμαι χωρὶζ τοῦ μaμμωνᾶ ποιῆσαι Φίλον, καὶ σπουδαιότερον μᾶλλον, ᾒ διὰ τιῦ μαμμωνᾶ. Almsgiving is proof of Christian profession (idem, Hom. in John 20.3 [ PG 59. 128] ).

30 Chrysostom Hom. in John 19.3 (PG 59. 124) Οủδὲ γὰρ ἒνι γενέσθαι πρόσοδον δαπάνηζ χωρὶζ, Οủδὲ πλοῦτον ἄνευ ἀναλωμάτων.

31 Acclamations were an intrinsic part of the patronage system (Liebeschuetz, Antioch, 218); see also Chrysostom De inani gloria et de educandis liberis 4.167–84 (SC 188. 74–78). Although Chrysostom deplored almsgiving done for worldly show (Hom. in John 28.3 [ PG 59. 166] ), he was quite content to summon up an impressive heavenly audience: “In short, if you want to love glory, love glory, but let it be the immortal sort. For its theater is more brilliant and its profit greater” (Όλωζ δὲ εέ βούλει δόξηζ ἐρᾷν, ἔρα δόξηζ, ἀλλὰ τῆζ ἀΦανάτου. καὶ γὰρ λαμπρότερον αὐδῆζ τὸ θέατρον, καὶ μεῖζον δὸ κέρδοζ; Hom. in John 42.4 [ PG 59. 243]; see also 38.5 [ PG 59. 218–19] ). God's reward is not some “small, low-class theater” (μικρὸν καὶ ταπεινὸν καθίζω θεάτρον; idem, Hom. in John 4.4 [ PG 59. 51]; see also 3.6 [ PG 59. 45] ).

32 Chrysostom Ad viduam iuniorem 7.447–52 (SC 138. 152) Όλωζ δὲ εἰ βούλει καὶ τὰ χρήματά σοι μένειν ἐν ἀσθαλεί ᾳ καὶ αὔξε σ θαι πάλιν, ἐγώ σοι καὶ τὸν τρόπον ὑποδείξω καὶ τὸν τό πον, ἔνθα ο ὐδενί τῶν ἐπιβουλευόντων θέμιζ εἰσε λ?εῖν. ?ίζ ο ὖν ἐστιν ὁ τόποζ; Ό οὐρανόζ. ᾈ π όστειλον α ὐτὰ προζ τ ὸν καλὸν ἐκε ῖνον ἄνδ?α, καὶ ο ὔτε κλέπτ ηζ, οὔτε ἐπάβουλοζ, οὔτε ἄλλο τι τῶν λυ μαινομένων αὐτοῖζ ἐπ ιτηδῆσαι δ δυνήσεται.

33 “Chrysostom Adpopulum Antiochenum de statuts 2.5 (PG 49. 41) ἅστηκεν ὁ Χριστ?ζ ἅτοιμοζ ὑποδέξασθαι, καὶ τηρῆσαί σοι τὰζ παρακαταθήκαζ, οὐχὶ τηρῆσαι δὲ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ πλεονάσαι, καὰ μετὰ πολλῆζ ἀποδοῦναι τῆζ προσθήκαζ. See also idem, Hom. in Gen. 20.5 (PG 53. 174). Not only are we promised a hundredfold return, but even if a thief steals our investment, Christ says, “Set that down to my account” (ᾈπόθεσθε αὐτὰ παρ ἐμοὶ; idem, Hom. in 1 Tim. 11.2 [ PG 62. 555] ). Money lenders prefer to lend to those who will take a long time to repay, thus making the interest greater (idem, Hom. in Rom. 7.8 [ PG 60. 451] ).

34 Chrysostom Hom. in Man. 5.5 (PG 57. 61) καὶ οὐκ ἐννοεῖζ ὅτι ἔστι Φειδόμενον ἀπολέσαι, καὶ μὴ Φειδόμενον κερδάναι. See also idem, Hom. in Gen. 55.5 (PG 54. 4).

35 Chrysostom Hom. in John 27.3 (PG 59. 161) ἀλλ οὕτωζ ἐσμὲν ἀγνώμονεζ, ώζ οἰκέταιζ μὲν καὶ ᾑμιόνοιζ καὶ ἵπποιζ περιδέραια χρυσᾶ περτρθέναι, τὸν σὲ Δεσπότην γεμνὸν περιïόντα; see also 25.3 (PG 59. 152); idem, Hom. in Matt. 66.3–4 (PG 58. 629–30).

36 Fine houses will become one's greatest accuser on the day of judgment (Chrysostom Hom. in John 47.5 [ PG 59. 268–69] ); it is far better to build splendid houses in heaven (idem, Ad populum Antiochenum de statuts 2.16 [ PG 49. 41] ).

37 Chrysostom In Laz.arum 2.3 (PG 48. 985) Mὴ ἁπλῶζ παραδάμηζ, ἀγαπηΤέ, Τό, ἐτάφη άλλ έντα?θά μοι νόει Τὰς τραπέζας τὰς περιηργυρωμένας, τὰς κλίνας, τοὺς ΤάπηΤας, Τὰ ἐπιβλήμαΤα, Τὰ ἄλλα Τὰ καΤὰ Τὴν οίκίαν ἅπανΤα, Τὰ μύρα, Τὰ ἀρώμαΤα, Τὸν μολὺν ἄκραΤον, Τῶν έδεσμάΤων Τὰς μοικιλίας, Τὰ καρυκεύμαΤα, Τοὺς μαγείρους, Τοὺς κόλακας, Τοὺς δορυφόρους, Τοὺς οἰκέΤας, Τὴν ἄλλην ἅπασαν φανΤασίαν καΤεσβεσμένην καὶ καΤαμαρανθεῖσαν. According to Palladius, John Chrysostom is said to have remarked, “This life is a bazaar. We finish our buying and selling and we move elsewhere” (πανήγυρις Τὰ παρόνΤα ἠγοράσαμεν, ἐπωλήσαμεν, καΤαλύομεν; Dialogus 8.119–20 [ SC 341. 166]; the translation is that of Meyer, Robert T., Dialogue on the Life of St. John Chrysostom [ ACW 45; New York: Newman, 1985] 53)Google Scholar. See also Chrysostom Hom. in John 47.5 (PG 59. 268); idem, Ad populum Antiochenum de statuts 13.2 (PG 49. 138); idem, In Lazarum 6.1 (PG 48. 1028–29); idem, Hom. in John 44.2 (PG 59. 250); idem, Adhorationes ad Theodorum lapsum 1.9 (PG 47. 288); idem, De virginitate 68.45–51 (SC 125. 340–42).

38 On the ravages of moths, rust, and robbers, see Chrysostom Hom, in Matt. 47.4 (PG 58. 486); idem, Hom in Rom. 30.1 (PG 60. 662); idem, Hom, in Gen. 37.5 (PG 53. 349–50); idem, Hom, in 1 Cor. 21.5 (PG 61. 176). On the sadness of the wealthy, see idem, Ad populum Antiochenum de statuts 18.1 (PG 49. 181–82); idem, Hom, in Matt. 68.3 (PG 58. 643); idem, Hom, in Gen. 59.2 (PG 54. 515).

39 Chrysostom Hom, in Matt. 66.5 (PG 58. 631) Oủκ ἔσΤιν έ νΤαῦθα δοῦναι µισθὸν Τῆς µεΤακοειδῆς Τῶν είσφεροεένων. See also idem, Hom, in Gen. 20.5 (PG 53. 174) ἔσΤιν ένΤαῦθα καεεῖν έξαργυρίζονΤαζ.

40 Chrysostom Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae 2.5 (PG 47. 338); idem, Hom, in John 44.2 (PG 59. 250); idem, Homilia in paralyticum demissum per tectum 1 (PG 51. 49); idem, Quod nemo laedatur nisi a seipso 10 (PG 52. 471); idem, Hom, in 1 Cor. 12.7 (PG 61. 106).

41 Chrysostom In Lazarum 1.9 (PG 48. 975) Άλλἁ ΤούΤῳ µὲν είζ παρασίΤουζ καὶ κόλακιζ καὶ µέθην Τὰ ὄνΤα ᾃπανΤα δαπανῶνΤι, ὥσπερ έκ πηγῶν ἅπανΤα έπιρρεῖ έγὡ δὲ παράδειγµα Τοῖζ όρῶσι κεῖεαι καὶ αίσχύνη καὶ γέλωζ λιµᾧ Τηκόµενος. See also idem, Hom, in 1 Cor. 27.4–5 (PG 61. 230–31); idem, Hom, in 2 Cor. 19.3 (PG 61. 533).

42 Chrysostom Hom, in I Tim. 11.2 (PG 62. 555) Άλλὰ βραδέως µοι, φησὶν, άποδίδωσι.

43 Chrysostom Ad populum Antiochenum de statuts 2.6 (PG 49. 42–43); see also idem, Adversus Judaeos 7.6 (PG 48. 926). John Chrysostom suggested that we look on the poor “as our benefactors” (καθάµερ εύεργέΤας Hom, in Gen. 34.3 [PG 53. 315]). Personal almsgiving is vastly more effective than an easy reliance upon the patronage of charitable relatives or even churchly connections (idem, In Lazarum 3.9 [PG 48. 1005–6]). Monks may also exercise patronage (idem, Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae 2.7 [PG 47. 342]; idem, Hom. in Gen. 21.3 [PG 53. 179]); see also the classic study by Peter Brown, “The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity,” JRomS 60–61 (1970/71) 80–101. Chrysostom asserted, however, that it is Bishop Flavian who was the truly effective patron of the city (Ad populum Antiochenum de statuts 21.1–4 [PG 49. 211–20]); see also Natali, A., “Eglise et évergétisme à; Antioche à fin du siècle d'après Jean Chrysostome,” StPatr 17 (1982) 1177–78.Google Scholar

44 Chrysostom Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae 3.7 (PG 47. 359) Ούαὶ Τοῖς µλουΤοῦσιν, ύµεῖς δὲ ὅµως χρηµαΤίσαινΤο, µράΤΤεΤε Ούαὶ ὅΤαν καλῶς εἴµωσιν ύµᾶς µάνΤες οί ἄνθρωµοι ύµεῖς δὲ καὶ ούσίας όλοκλἠρους ύπῦρ Τῆς Τῶν δήµων εύφηµίας έκενώσαΤε µολλάκις. See Brandie, Rudolf, “Jean Chrysostome— l'importance de Matt. 25, 31–46 pour son èthique,” VC 31 (1977) 4752.Google Scholar

45 Browning, Robert has noted (“The Riot of A.D. 387 in Antioch: The Role of the Theatrical Claque in the Later Roman Empire,” JRomS 42 [1952] 19)Google Scholar the tension in these years between the rich and the poor. Leduc points out (“Vaine gloire,” 15–16) the clarity with which John saw that vainglory was an obstacle to harmonious relations with others.

46 Chrysostom Hom, in 2 Thess. 3.3 (PG 62. 484) Eἰσῆλθε πλοủσιος ένταῦθα ᾕ καἰπλουτοῦσα γυνή οủϕροντἰξει πῶς μετὰ κóμπου καθἰσει τῶν λογἰων τοῦ Θωοῦ ἀλλἀ πῶς έπιδεἰξεται πῶνς μετὰ κóμπον καθἰσει, πῶς ἄλλας ὐπερβαλεâται τῆ τῶν ἰματἰων έργάσεται καἰ πᾶσα ᾑ φροντἰς καἰ ᾑ μἐριμνα αὐτῆ, ἆρα ωἶδων ῄ δεîνα; ἆρα ἐθαὐμασεν; ἆρα καλῶς κεκαλλὠπισμαι;… ‘Oμοἰως καἰ ó πλοντῶν άνῂρ εἰσέρχεται δεἰξων ἑαντòν τῷ πδnητι, καἰ εἰς ϕόβον καταστήσων διὰ τῆς περιβολῆς τῶν ἱματίων, διὰ τοῦ παῖδας ἕχειν πολλοὺς καὶ παρεστήκασιν ἀποσβοῦντες… νομίζει χαρίζεσθαι καὶ ᾑμῖν, καὶ τῷ λαῷ, τάχα δὲ καὶ τῷ Θεῷ, ὅτι εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ οἶκον. See also idem, Hom, in Heb. 28.14 (PG 63. 200).

47 Chrysostom Hom, in John 76.3 (PG 59. 413) 'λλὰ καταγελᾶται ὁ πένης κᾂν ἐνάρετος ἦ, ϕήσιν.

48 Duncan Cloud, “The Client-Patron Relationship: Emblem and Reality in Juvenal's First Book,” in Wallace-Hadrill, Patronage in Ancient Society, 210. See Young, Frances, “John Chrysostom on 1st and 2nd Corinthians,” StPatr 18 (1985) 446Google Scholar; and compare Leduc, Francis, “L'Éschatologie, une préoccupation centrale de saint Jean Chrysostome,” Proche-Orient Chrétien 19 (1969) 125.Google Scholar

49 Chrysostom Hom, in Rom. 21.3 (PG 60. 606) Eἰσϕέρεις σὺ χρήματα; Eἰσϕέρουσί σοι παρρησίαν ἐκεῖνοι τὴν πρὸς τὸν Θεόν. See also Bartelink, G. J. M., “Παρρησία dans les oeuvres de Jean Chrysostome,” StPatr 16 (1985) 441–48.Google Scholar

50 Chrysostom Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae 3.2 (PG 47. 350) Тί μοι, καὶ τῆς τῶν ἅλλων προνοίας; ὁ ἀπολλύμενος ἀπολλύμσθω, καὶ ὁ σωζόμενος σωζέσθω οὑδὲν τούτων πρὸς ἐμὲ, τὰ ἐμαυτοῦ σκοπεῖν ἐπιτέταγμαι. See also idem, Adversus Judaeos 4.7 (PG 48. 881); idem, Ad populum Antiochenum de statuis 1.12 (PG 49. 33); idem, Hom, in Gen. 7.5 (PG 53. 63); idem, Contra eos qui subintroductas habent 3.20–22 and 4.7–9 (in Dumortier, Jean, ed., Saint Jean Chrysostome: les cohabitations suspectes; comment observer la virginité [Paris: Belles Lettres, 1955] 53Google Scholar, 56). Brown, Peter describes (The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity [New York: Columbia University Press, 1988] 306)Google Scholar this appeal as preaching “a solidarity of bodies at risk.”

51 Chrysostom Hom. in I Cor. 3.4 (PG 61. 28) Καὶ ὅΤαν εἴπωσιν ἐκεῖνοι, ὅΤι ἄγροικοι ἦσαν οί ὰπόσΤολοι, προσθῶμεν ἡμεῖς, καὶ εἴυωμεν, ὅΤι καὶ ἀμαθεᾶς καὶ ἀγράμμαΤοι καὶ πένηΤες θαὶ εὐΤελεῖς καὶ ἀσύνεΤοι καὶ ἀφανεῖς. Οὐκ ἔσΤι βλασφημία Τῶν ἀποσΤόλων ΤαῦΤα, ἀλλὰ καὶ δόξα. Chrysostom recognized the social calculus of manual labor, saying of Peter and Paul, “Although the tentmaker has more prestige than the fisherman, he is less esteemed than all other artisans”(Τοῦ μὲν γἁρ ἁλιέως ὁ σκηνοποιὸς ΤιμιώΤερος, Τῶν δὲ ἄλλων χειροΤεχνῶν εὐΤελέσΤεσος; Panegyrium in Babylam martyrem 3 [ PG 50. 538] ).

52 Chrysostom Contra Judaeos et gentiles Quod Christus sit Deus 9.6 (PG 48. 825) Έν Τῆ βασιλικωΤἀΤη πόλει 'Pώμη, πἀνΤα ἀφιένΤες, ἐπὶ Τοὺς Τέφους Τοῦ ἀλιέως καὶ Τοῦ σκηνοποιοῦ Τρέχουσι καὶ βασιλεῖς καὶ ὕπαΤοι καὶ σΤραΤηγοί… καὶ γεγόνασι θυρωροὶ λοιπὸν Τῶν ἁλιέων οἱ βασιλεῖς. Compare idem, Hom. in 2 Cor. 26.5 (PG 61. 582); no empress was more conspicuous or celebrated than the tentmaker's wife (idem, Hom. in Rom. 30.3 [ PG 60. 665] ); and Mary's low social status should abash the rich (idem, Hom. in John 53.3 [ PG 59. 296] ).

53 “The rich man is a kind of treasury official of goods owed for distribution to the poor”(οὕΤω δὴ καὶ ὁ πλούσιος, ὑποδέκΤης Τίς ἐσΤι Τῶν Τοῖς πένησιν ὀφειλομένων χρημάΤων διανεμηθῆναι; Chrysostom In Lazarum 2.4 [ PG 48. 988]; see also 2.1 [ PG 48. 992] ). In his strongest language, Chrysostom was able to assert that an almsgiver “has God as a debtor”(ὀφειλέΤην ἔχει Τὀν θεόν; Hom. in Gen. 31.1 [ PG 53. 283] ). See also idem, Hom. in Rom. 7.9 (PG 60. 453); and Hom. in Matt. 85.4 (PG 58. 809). Rabbinical homilies of this same time stressed that one should place one's trust in a divine rather than a human patron; see Sperber, Daniel, “Patronage in Amoraic Palestine (c. 200–400),” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 14 (1971) 234CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

54 Chrysostom Hom. in John 19.1 (PG 59. 119–20) Διὰ ΤοῦΤο καὶ πόλεις ἐδειμάμεθα, καὶ ἀγορἁς καὶ οἰκίας, ἵνα ὁμοῦ καὶ μεΤ ἀλλήλων ὦμεν, οὐ καΤὰ Τὴν οἴκησιν μόνον, ἀνλὰ καὶ καΤὰ Τὸν Τῆς ἀγάπης σύνδεσμον. Έπειδἡ γὰρ ἐνδεὴς ἡμῖν ἡ φὐσις παρὰ Τοῦ πεποιηθόΤος ἐγἐνεΤο, καὶ οὐκ αὐΤάρκης ἐσΤὶν ἑαυΤῆ, συμφερόνΤως ᾠκονόμησεν ό Φεὸς Τὴν ἐνΤεῦθεν ἔνδειαν λοιπὸν ἐθ Τῆς καΤὰ Τὴν σὐνοδον παρ ἀλλήλων γινομἑνης ὠφελείαζ διορθωθῆναι. Compare idem, Ad populum Antiochenum de statuis 16.6 (PG 49. 172) Διὰ ΤοῦΤο μεΤ ἀλλὴλων ἐσμὲν, καὶ πόλεις οἰκοῦμεν, καὶ ἐν ἐκκλησίαις συναγόμεθα, ἴνα Τἑ ἀλλήλων βἀρη βασΤἀξωμεν, ἵνα Τὰ ἀλλήλων ἑμαρΤὴμαΤα διορθώμεθα.

55 Hom. in Gen. 32.1 (PG 53. 293) Καὶ γὰρ πανήγυρίς ἐσΤι πνευμαΤικὴ Τοῦ θεοῦ ή ἐκκλησία… καὶ δεῖ καθάπερ εἰς πανήγυρνν παραγενέμ?νους, πολλὴν Τὴν εὐπορίαν ἐνΤεῦθεν συλλέξανΤας, οὕΤ?ς ἐπανιέναι. When Chrysostom was restored to the pulpit after his first brief exile, he thus cried in joy, “The sea has become a city. … The market has become church everywhere among us” (Τὸ πέλαγος πόλις ἐγήνεΤο.… Γέγονεν ἡ ἀγορὰ ἐκκλησία, Τὰ πανΤαχοῦ δἰ ἡμάς; Homilia post reditum ab exilio 3 [ PG 52. 445] ).

56 Chrysostom Hom. in John 40.4 (PG 59. 234) ΍ μὲν γὰρ λάγει, Δίδου Τοῖς δεο—μένοις ὁ δὲ, ᾍρπαζε Τῶν δεομένων. Ὁ ·ρισΤὸς λέγεν, Καὶ Τοῖς ἐπνβουλεύουσι καὶ ἀδικοῦσι συγχώρει οὗΤος ἔμπαλιν, ΚαΤασκεύαζε πάγας καΤὰ Τῶν οὺδὲν ἀδικούνΤων. Ὁ ΧρισΤὸς λέγει, Φιλάνθρωπος ἕσο καὶ ἥμερος οὗΤος ἀπ ἐνανΤίας, Ὠμὸς ἔσο καὶ ἀπηνἠς, καὶ μηδὲ;ν εἶναι νό;μιζε δάκρυα πενήΤων, see also 8.2 (PG 59. 68); and idem, Hom. in 1 Cor. 36.6 (PG 61. 314).

57 Chrysostom Ad populum Antiochenum de statuis 1.2 (PG 49. 18) Eἰ μὲν γάρ εἷς ἐκείνων ἦν Τῶν εἰς Τὰς κορυφὰς Τῶν ὀρέων ἀνακεχωρηκόΤων, καὶ Τῶν ἐπὶ Τῆς ἐρημὶας καλύβην πηξαμένων, καὶ Τῶν ἀπράγμονα ΤοῦΤον ἀνηρημένων βίον. See also idem, Hom. in Matt. 68.3 (PG 58. 643–44); and 68.5 (PG 58. 646).

58 As Elizabeth Clark has pointed out, “the description of all human relationships in the language of political power is especially pronounced in the writings of John Chrysostom”; see Elizabeth A. Clark, “The Virginal Politela and Plato's Republic: John Chrysostom on Women and the Sexual Relation,” in her Jerome, Chrysostom, and Friends, 1; see also Countryman, William, The Rich Christian in the Church of the Early Empire (New York/Toronto: Meilen, 1980)Google Scholar esp. chapters 1 (pp. 47– 68) and 3 (pp. 103– 30).

59 Chrysostom Si esurierit inimicus 2 (PG 51. 174– 75) Eἰ δὲ Τὸ θέρος προβάλλοινΤο καὶ γὰρ καὶ ΤαῦΤα ἀκούω λεγόνΤων, ὄΤι Σφοδρὸν Τὸ πνῖγος νῦν, Τὸ καῦμα ἀφόρηΤον οὐκ ἰσχύομεν σΤενοχωρεῖσθαι καὶ θλίβεσθαι ἐν Τῷ πλήθει, ἰδρῶΤι πάνΤοθεν περιρρεόμενοι καὶ ἀχθόμενοι Τῌ θέρμη καὶ Τῆ σΤενοχωρία. … ἐπὶ δὲ Τῆς ἀγορᾶς, εὶπέ μοι, ἔνθα ΤοσοῦΤος θόρυβος καὶ σΤενοχωρία καὶ πολὺς ὁ καύσων, πῶς οὐ προβἀλλη πνῖγος καὶ θέρμην;

60 Chrysostom Sacerdot. 3.9.32– 36 (SC 272. 162– 64).

61 Ibid., 3.14.19–21 (SC 272. 220). For this reason, Chrysostom had also complained earlier in this text, “Whereas Christ called fishermen and tentmakers and tax collectors to this office, these people spit on those who support themselves by daily labor” Kαἰ ò μὲν Xριστóς ἁλιεîς καἰ τοûτο ὑποπτεúσων ἦν. ταúτην ἐκαλεσε τῂν ἀρχῂν. οὖτοι δὲ τοúς μὲν ἀπò τῆς ἐργασἰας τῆς καθημερινῆς τρεϕομένοις διάπτουσιν; 2.7.41–43 [SC 272. 132]).

62 Chrysostom Hom, in Eph. 11.5 (PG 62. 86) 'Aρκεîν τοῡτο ᾑγεîσθε, εἰπέ μοι, τòλέγειν, ὅ τι ὀρθòδοδοξοἰ εἰσι, τὰ τῆς χετροἰας δὲ οἴχεται καἰ ἀπóλωλε. See also idem, Hom, in 1 Thess. 2.4 (PG 62. 404). Priests are not to be judged by those subject to them, “and especially by those of quite exceptional simplicity” (καἰ μἀλιστα τῶν idem, πᾴνυ ἀφελεστέρων; Hom, in John 86.4 [PG 59. 472]; compare idem, Salutate Priscillam 2.6 [PG 51. 205]).

63 Chrysostom Sacerdot. 3.14.7–9 (SC 272. 218) ἥδη γάρ τινες τῶν ἀσθενεστέρων πρἀγμασιν ἐμπεσóντες, ἐπειδή προστασς οὐκ ἓτυχομ, ἐμαυάγησν περὶ τὴντίστιν.

64 Chrysostom Hom. in Phil. 9.4 (PG 62. 251) 'Eννόησον ὅσα 'Iουδαῖνοι ἐδίδοσαν, δεκάτας, άπαρχὰς, πάλιν δεκάτας, καὶ πάλιν ἅλλας δεκάτας, καὶ πάλιν ἐτήρας τρισκαιδεκάτας, καὶ τὸ σίκλον καὶ οὐδεὶς ἕλεγεν, ὅτι πολλὰ κατεσθίουσιν. … Оὐκ ἕλεγον, Πολλὰ λαμβάνουσι, γαστρίζονται, ἅ νῦν ἁκούω λεγόντων τινῶν. Кαὶ οἱ μὲν οἰκοδομοῦντες οἰκίας, καὶ ἀγρούς ὠνούμενοι, οὐδὲν ἡγοῦνται ἕχειν ἅν δέ τις τῶν ἱερέων λαμπρότερον ἱμάτιον περιβάληται, ἥ τῆς ἀναγκοίας εὐπορήση τροϕῆς, ἥ τὸν διακονούμενον ἕχη, ἵνα μὴ ἀναγκάζηται αὐτὸς ἀσχημονεῖν, πλοῦτον τὸ πρᾶγμα τίθενται. … δλως δὲ εἰ σὺ ἕδωκας, τί ἐγκαλεῖς; Πρότερον μὲν οὖν αὐτῷ πενίαν ἐμαρτύρεις, λέγων ἅπερ ἕχει δεδωκέναι αὐτός.… Eἱ δἐ ὅτι τῆς ἀναγκαίας εὐπορεῖ τροϕῆ, διὰ τοῦτο ἀικὰ περιιέναι ἐχρῆν αὐτὸν, καὶ προσαιτεῖν; καὶ οὐκ ἅν σὺ κατη σχύνθης, εἰπέ μοι, ὁ μαθητ ής;

65 Chrysostom Hom. in Titus 1.3 (PG 62. 668) οὐκ ἐπὶ ἀρχὴν ἕρχεται ό τοιοῦτος, ἀλλὰ δουλεύει μυρίοις δεσπότοας.

66 Chrysostom De eleemosyna 1 (PG 51. 261) Πρεσβείαν… τῶν δὲ τὴν πόλιν οἰκούνττν ἡμῖν πτωχῶν ἐπἰ ταύτην με χειροτονησάντων; Brown, Body, 309.

67 Chrysostom Hom, in Matt. 40.4 (PG 57. 443); idem, Hom, in Titus 1.2–3 (PG 62. 668); idem, Hom, in Acts 3.4–5 (PG 60. 39–41); idem, Hom, in 2 Tim. 2.2 (PG 62. 610); idem, Hom. in 1 Cor. 21.7 (PG 61. 180); 8.1 (PG 61. 69); see also Palladius Dialogus 15.21–26 (SC 341. 292); Jerome, Epistulae 22.28.

68 Chrysostom Hom, in 2 Cor. 20.3 (PG 61. 539–40) Кαὶ ἱερέας καθίστησι καὶ ἱερωσύνην πολὐν ϕέρουσααν τὸν μισθόν. ‘О γὰρ ἐλεήμων… ἀναβέβληται μὲν τῆς ϕιλανθρωπίας στολὴν, τῆς ἰερᾶς ἐσθῆτος ἁγιωτάραν οὖσαν.

69 Chrysostom Hom, in Titus 6.2 (PG 62. 698) Тοῦτο ὁμοίους ποιεῖ τῷ Θεῷ.

70 Chrysostom Hom, in John 19.3 (PG 59. 123) δούλου, τὸ τηρεῖν, τὸ δὲ ἀναλίσκειν, κυρίου καὶ πολλὴν ἔχοντος τὴν ἐξουσίαν. Elsewhere he noted, “O senseless people, who even curse the poor, saying that both their houses and their life are put to shame by poverty” ('Аλλ ὥ τῶν ἀνοήτων ἀνθρώπων, οὀ καὶ καταρῶνται τοῖς πένησι, καὶ ϕασι καταισχύνεσθαι καὶ οἰκίας καὶ βίον ὑπὸ πενίας; idem, Hom, in Matt. 83.4 [PG 58. 750]).