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A Note on the Dating of the Social War

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 September 2009

Extract

The chronology of the Social War has for a long time been a source of dispute amongst historians of fourth-century Athens. The central problem has been the confusion that Diodoros, our main source for the period, got himself into. In the first of his two references to the Social War Diodoros refers to the outbreak of a ‘three-year war’ in the archonship of Cephisodotos (358/357). However, later on he refers to the closure of the war in the archonship of Elpines (356/355) after a ‘four-year war.’

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Classical Association 1997

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References

1. The so-called war that occurred between the Athenians (with their allies) and certain members of the Second Athenian Confederacy who seceded in the early 350's B.C.

2. Diod. 16.7.3; 16.22.2.

3. Dion. Hal. Lys. 12.p.480. For those who support Dionysios' dating see, for example, Beloch, K. J., Griechische Geschichte2, 8 vols. (2nd ed.Strasburg, Berlin and Leipzig 19121913) iii. 260–62 andGoogle Scholar, more recently, Sealey, R., Demosthenes and his Time (Oxford, 1993), 103–6Google Scholar. Contra see Schweigert, E., ‘Greek Inscriptions’, Hesperia (1939), 14Google Scholar and Lewis, D. M., ‘Notes on Attic Inscriptions’, ABSA 49 (1954), 44Google Scholar.

4. On Chabrias of Aixone see Kirchner, J., Prosopographica Attica I (Berlin 1901/1903)Google Scholar; Davies, J. K., Athenian Propertied Families 600–300 B.C. (Oxford, 1971)Google Scholar. On the situation in Thrace see Dem. 23.171.

5. Dem. 23.171–3.

6. Ibid. 173.

7. See Cawkwell, G. L., ‘The Failure of the Second Athenian Confederacy’, JHS 101 (1981), 52CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

8. Aeschines 3.85.

9. On Diodes see Kirchner and Davies, opp. cit. (n.4), and Develin, R., Athenian Officials 684–321 B.C. (Cambridge, 1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

10. See Harding, P., Translated Documents of Greece and Rome vol.2: From the Peloponnesian War to the Battle of Ipsos (Cambridge, 1985)Google Scholar. On the death of Chabrias see Diod. 16.7.4; Plut, Phoc. 6.1; Nepos 12 (Chabrias). 4; Dem. 20.80. 11. Diod. 16.7.3.

12. On fourth-century warfare and the rise of mercenaries see Garlan, Y., War in the Ancient World. A Social History (London, 1975)Google Scholar; Ferrill, A., The Origins of War (London, 1985), 149–86Google Scholar and the review by Wheeler, E. in Armed Forces and Society 14 (1987), 156–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Warry, J., Warfare in the Classical World (London, 1980), 5581Google Scholar. On the timing of hoplite warfare see Hanson, V., The Western Way of War (London, 1989)Google Scholar and his introduction of Hoplites, The Classical Greek Battle Experience (London, 1993)Google Scholar.

13. Diod. 16.22.2. For a full discussion of Chares and his role after the battle of Chios see Peake, S., The Role of the Generals in Athens in the Fourth Century B.C. (Ph.D. thesis St. Andrews 1991), 123–6Google Scholar.

14. Second Marathon: Schol. to Dem 4.19.; 3.39. Recall: FGrH 105F4; Diod. 16.22.2.

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