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Variations in δ13C values of sedimentary organic matter since late Miocene time in the Indus Fan (IODP Site 1457) of the eastern Arabian Sea

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 January 2019

Boo-Keun Khim*
Affiliation:
Department of Oceanography, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Korea
Jongmin Lee
Affiliation:
Department of Oceanography, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Korea
Sanbeom Ha
Affiliation:
Department of Oceanography, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Korea
Jingu Park
Affiliation:
Department of Oceanography, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Korea
Dhananjai K. Pandey
Affiliation:
Department of Marine Geophysics, National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Goa, 403804, India
Peter D. Clift
Affiliation:
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70803, USA
Denise K. Kulhanek
Affiliation:
International Ocean Discovery Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77845, USA
Stephan Steinke
Affiliation:
Department of Geological Oceanography, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China
Elizabeth M. Griffith
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA
Kenta Suzuki
Affiliation:
Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0810, Japan
Zhaokai Xu
Affiliation:
Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China

Abstract

A 1108.6 m long core was recovered at Site U1457 located on the Indus Fan in the Laxmi Basin of the eastern Arabian Sea during IODP Expedition 355. Shipboard examinations defined five lithologic units (I to V) of the lower Paleocene to Holocene sedimentary sequence. In this study, δ13C values of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) confirm the differentiation of the lithologic units and further divide units III and IV into two subunits (1 and 2). Based on the underlying assumption that the SOM is decided primarily by a mixture of marine and terrestrial origins, δ13CSOM values at Site U1457 provide information on the terrestrial catchment conditions since late Miocene time. Low δ13CSOM values from late Miocene to late Pleistocene times are similar (c. −22.0 ‰) for the most part, reflecting a consistent contribution of terrestrial organic matter from the catchment areas characterized by dominant C3 land plants. Significantly lower δ13CSOM values (c. −24.0 ‰) in Unit III-2 (∼8 to ∼7 Ma) might be due to a greater input of C3 terrestrial organic matter. The increase in δ13CSOM values at ∼7 Ma and the appearance of high δ13CSOM values (c. −18.0 ‰) within Unit III-1 (∼7 to ∼2 Ma) indicate that C4 biomass overwhelmed the terrestrial catchment environment as a result of enhanced terrestrial aridity in the Himalayan foreland. The three-end-member simple mixing model, estimating the relative contributions of SOM from terrestrial C3 and C4 plants and marine phytoplankton, supports our interpretation of the distribution of C3 and C4 land plants in the terrestrial catchment environment.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2019

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Footnotes

*

A comprehensive list of consortium members appears at the end of the paper.

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