Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-lkb8j Total loading time: 0.421 Render date: 2022-01-17T22:11:08.967Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Scratching the discs: evaluating alternative hypotheses for the origin of the Ediacaran discoidal structures from the Cerro Negro Formation, La Providencia Group, Argentina

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 May 2021

Lucas Inglez*
Departamento de Geologia, Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Avenida 24A, 1515, Rio Claro 13506-900, Brazil
Lucas V. Warren
Departamento de Geologia, Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Avenida 24A, 1515, Rio Claro 13506-900, Brazil
Fernanda Quaglio
Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, Jd. Eldorado, Diadema, 09972-270, Brasil
Renata G. Netto
Geology Graduate Program, Unisinos University, Av. Unisinos, 950, 93022-000, São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Juliana Okubo
Departamento de Geologia, Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Avenida 24A, 1515, Rio Claro 13506-900, Brazil
Maria J. Arrouy
Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. E. J. Usunoff”, República de Italia 780, B7300, Azul, Argentina
Marcello G. Simões
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Júnior, Botucatu 18618-000, Brazil
Daniel G. Poiré
Centro de Investigaciones Geológicas, UNLP-CONICET, calle 1, n. 644, La Plata 1900, Argentina
Author for correspondence: Lucas Inglez, Email:


In the Ediacaran marine succession of the Cerro Negro Formation (Tandilia System, NE Argentina), abundant microbially induced sedimentary structures indicate general conditions of substrate biostabilization. Numerous discoidal structures in this succession were previously interpreted as moulds of soft-tissue holdfasts of sessile organisms, within the form genus Aspidella. In this study, we performed a detailed re-analysis of some of these features and discuss two alternative hypotheses to explain their genesis: (1) as the result of soft-sediment deformation and fluid injection structures; and (2) as structures of active animal–sediment interaction (i.e. trace fossils). We show that the dome-shaped discs are internally laminated, with a cylindrical to a funnel-shaped vertical tube at their central region. The presence of these downwards vertical extensions and other intricate internal arrangements cannot be explained under the taphonomic spectrum of discoidal fossils, but shows striking similarities to Intrites-like structures and other sand-volcano-like pseudofossils (e.g. Astropolithon). However, some structures are hard to distinguish from vertical dwelling burrows with funnel-shaped apertures and thick-lined walls, commonly produced by suspension- and detritus-feeding invertebrates (e.g. Skolithos isp., Monocraterion isp. and, less likely, Rosselia isp.). Since reliable age constraints are unavailable, and further investigation concerning other palaeobiological indicators is needed, the most parsimonious hypothesis is that of a structure derived from fluid-escape processes. Our study demonstrates the importance of detailed investigation on discoidal structures in either upper Ediacaran or lower Cambrian strata.

Original Article
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alfaro, P, Delgado, J, Estévez, A, Molina, JM, Moretti, M and Soria, JM (2002) Liquefaction and fluidization structures in Messinian storm deposits (Bajo Segura Basin, Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). International Journal of Earth Sciences 91, 505–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, JRL (1982) Sedimentary Structures: Their Character and Physical Basis. Amsterdam: Elsevier, Vol. II, 663 p.Google Scholar
Allen, JRL (1986) Earthquake magnitude-frequency, epicentral distance and soft-sediment deformation in sedimentary basins. Sedimentary Geology 46, 6775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alvarez, W, Staley, E, O’Connor, D and Chan, MA (1998) Synsedimentary deformation in the Jurassic of southeastern Utah — A case of impact shaking? Geology 26, 579–82.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amthor, JE, Grotzinger, JP, Schroder, S, Bowring, SA, Ramezani, J, Martin, MW and Matter, A (2003) Extinction of Cloudina and Namacalathus at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in Oman. Geology 31, 431–34.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arrouy, MJ, Gaucher, C, Poiré, DG, Xiao, S, Gómez-Peral, LE, Warren, LV, Bykova, N and Quaglio, F (2019) A new record of late Ediacaran acritarchs from La Providencia group (Tandilia System, Argentina) and its biostratigraphical significance. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 93, 283–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arrouy, MJ, Poiré, DG, Gómez-Peral, LE and Canalicchio, JM (2015) Sedimentología y estratigrafía del Grupo La Providencia (nom. nov.): cubierta superior Neoproterozoica, Sistema de Tandilia, Argentina. Latin American Journal of Sedimentology and Basin Analysis 22, 171–89.Google Scholar
Arrouy, MJ, Warren, LV, Quaglio, F, Poiré, DG, Simões, MG, Rosa, MB and Gómez-Peral, LE (2016) Ediacaran discs from South America: probable soft-bodied macrofossils unlock the paleogeography of the Clymene Ocean. Scientific Reports 6, 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belaústegui, Z and Gibert, JM (2013) Bow-shaped, concentrically laminated polychaete burrows: A Cylindrichnus concentricus ichnofabric from the Miocene of Tarragona, NE Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 381–382, 119–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertling, M, Bradd, SJ, Bromley, RG, Demathieu, GR, Nielsen, JANK, Nielsen, KSS, Rindsberg, AK, Genise, J and Mikula, R (2006) Names for trace fossils: a uniform approach. Lethaia 39, 265–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bobrovskiy, I, Hope, JM, Krasnova, A, Ivantsov, A and Brocks, JJ (2018) Molecular fossils from organically preserved Ediacara biota reveal cyanobacterial origin for Beltanelliformis . Nature Ecology and Evolution 2, 437–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bobrovskiy, I, Krasnova, A, Ivantsov, A, Luzhnaya (Serezhnikova), E and Brocks, JJ (2019) Simple sediment rheology explains the Ediacara biota preservation. Nature Ecology and Evolution 3, 582–89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bromley, RG (1990) Trace Fossils: Biology and Taphonomy. London: Unwin Hyman, 290 p.Google Scholar
Buatois, LA, Almond, J, Mángano, MG, Jensen, S and Germs, GJB (2018) Sediment disturbance by Ediacaran bulldozers and the roots of the Cambrian explosion. Scientific Reports 8, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buatois, LA and Mángano, MG (2011) The trace-fossil record of organism–matground interactions in space and time. In Microbial Mats in Silicilastic Depositional Systems Through Time (eds Noffke, N and Chafetz, H), pp. 1528. Tulsa: Society for Sedimentary Geology, SEPM Special Publication no. 101.Google Scholar
Buatois, LA and Mángano, MG (2016) Ediacaran ecosystems and the dawn of animals. In The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events (eds Mángano, G and Buatois, L), pp. 2772. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Callow, RHT and Brasier, MD (2009) Remarkable preservation of microbial mats in Neoproterozoic siliciclastic settings: implications for Ediacaran taphonomic models. Earth-Science Reviews 96, 207–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carbone, C and Narbonne, GM (2014) When life got smart: the evolution of behavioral complexity through the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian of NW Canada. Journal of Paleontology 88, 309–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, Z, Zhou, C, Meyer, M, Xiang, K, Schiffbauer, JD, Yuan, X and Xiao, S (2013) Trace fossil evidence for Ediacaran bilaterian animals with complex behaviors. Precambrian Research 224, 690701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cingolani, C (2011) The Tandilia system of Argentina as a southern extension of the Río de la Plata craton: An overview. International Journal of Earth Sciences 100, 221–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cloud, P (1960) Gas as a sedimentary and diagenetic agent. American Journal of Science 258-A, 3545.Google Scholar
Dalla Salda, L, Bossi, J and Cingolani, C (1988) The Rio de la Plata cratonic region of southwestern Gondwanaland. Episodes 11, 263–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, NS, Liu, AG, Gibling, MR and Miller, RF (2016) Resolving MISS conceptions and misconceptions: A geological approach to sedimentary surface textures generated by microbial and abiotic processes. Earth-Science Reviews 154, 210–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desjardins, PR, Mángano, MG, Buatois, LA and Pratt, BR (2010) Skolithos pipe rock and associated ichnofabrics from the southern Rocky Mountains, Canada: colonization trends and environmental controls in an early Cambrian sand-sheet complex. Lethaia 43, 507–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dornbos, SQ, Noffke, N and Hagadorn, JW (2007) Mat-decay features. In Atlas of Microbial Mat Features Preserved within the Clastic Rock Record (eds Schieber, J, Bose, PK, Eriksson, PG, Banjeree, S, Sarkar, S, Altermann, W and Catuneau, O), pp. 106–10. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Droser, ML, Tarhan, LG, Evans, SD, Surprenant, RL and Gehling, JG (2020) Biostratinomy of the Ediacara Member (Rawnsley Quartzite, South Australia): implications for depositional environments, ecology and biology of Ediacara organisms. Interface Focus 10, 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foda, MA and Tzang, SY (1994) Resonant fluidization of silty soil by water waves. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 99, 20463–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford, TD (1958) Pre-Cambrian fossils from Charnwood Forest. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 31, 211–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaucher, C, Poiré, DG, Gómez-Peral, LE and Chiglino, L (2005) Litoestratigrafia, bioestratigrafia y correlaciones de las sucesiones sedimentarias del Neoproterozoico-Cambrico del craton del Rio de La Plata (Uruguay y Argentina). Latin American Journal of Sedimentology and Basin Analysis 12, 145–60.Google Scholar
Gehling, JG (1999) Microbial mats in terminal Proterozoic siliciclastics: Ediacaran death masks. Palaios 14, 4057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gehling, JG, Narbonne, GM and Anderson, MM (2000) The first named Ediacaran body fossil, Aspidella terranovica . Palaeontology 43, 427–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerdes, G, Klenke, T and Noffke, N (2001) Microbial signatures in peritidal siliciclastic sediments: A catalogue. Sedimentology 47, 279308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, WD and Kuenen, PH (1957) Sand volcanoes on slumps in the Carboniferous of County Clare, Ireland. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 113, 441–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gómez-Peral, LE, Arrouy, MJ, Poiré, DG and Cavarozzi, CE (2019) Redox-sensitive trace element distribution in the Loma Negra Formation in Argentina: the record of an Ediacaran oxygenation event. Precambrian Research 332, 105384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gómez-Peral, LE, Kaufman, AJ, Arrouy, MJ, Richiano, S, Sial, AN, Poiré, DG and Ferreira, VP (2018) Preglacial palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Ediacaran Loma Negra Formation, far southwestern Gondwana, Argentina. Precambrian Research 315, 120–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gómez-Peral, LE, Poiré, DG, Strauss, H and Zimmermann, U (2007) Chemostratigraphy and diagenetic constraints on Neoproterozoic carbonate successions from the Sierras Bayas Group, Tandilia System, Argentina. Chemical Geology 237, 109–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gómez-Peral, LE, Sial, AN, Arrouy, MJ, Richiano, S, Ferreira, VP, Kaufman, AJ and Poiré, DG (2017) Paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental evolution of the Neoproterozoic basal sedimentary cover on the Río de La Plata Craton, Argentina: insights from the δ13C chemostratigraphy. Sedimentary Geology 353, 139–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grazhdankin, D and Gerdes, G (2007) Ediacaran microbial colonies. Lethaia 40, 201–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greb, SF and Archer, AW (2007) Soft-sediment deformation produced by tides in a meizoseismic area, Turnagain Arm, Alaska. Geology 35, 435–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grey, K (2005) Ediacaran Palynology of Australia. Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, Memoir no. 31, 439 p.Google Scholar
Grotzinger, JP, Bowring, SA, Saylor, BZ and Kaufman, AJ (1995) Biostratigraphic and geochronologic constraints on early animal evolution. Science 270, 598604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagadorn, JW and Bottjer, DJ (1997) Wrinkle structures: microbially mediated sedimentary structures common in subtidal siliciclastic settings at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition. Geology 25, 1047–50.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagadorn, JW and Miller, RF (2011) Hypothesized Cambrian Medusae from Saint John, New Brunswick, reinterpreted as sedimentary structures. Atlantic Geology 47, 6680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofman, R, Mángano, MG, Elicki, O and Shinaq, R (2012) Paleoecological and biostratigraphic significance of trace fossils from shallow- to marginal-marine environments from Middle Cambrian (Stage 5) of Jordan. Journal of Paleontology 86, 931–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inglez, L, Warren, LV, Okubo, J, Simões, MG, Quaglio, F, Arrouy, MJ and Netto, RG (2019) Discs and discord: The paleontological record of Ediacaran discoidal structures in the south American continent. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 89, 319–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iñiguez, R (1999) La Cobertura Sedimentaria de Tandilia. In Geologia Argentina (ed. Caminos, R), pp. 101–6, Buenos Aires: SAGEMAR.Google Scholar
Ivantsov, AY, Gritsenko, VP, Konstantinenko, LI and Zakrevskaya, MA (2014) Revision of the problematic Vendian macrofossil Beltanelliformis (=Beltanelloides, Nemiana). Paleontological Journal 48, 1415–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jenkins, RJ and Gehling, JG (1978) A review of the frond-like fossils of the Ediacara assemblage. Records of the South Australian Museum 17, 347–59.Google Scholar
Jensen, S (1997) Trace fossils from the Lower Cambrian Mickwitzia sandstone, south-central Sweden. Fossils and Strata 42, 3111.Google Scholar
Jensen, S, Droser, ML and Gehling, JG (2005) Trace fossil preservation and the early evolution of animals. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220, 1929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jensen, S, Saylor, BZ, Gehling, JG and Germs, GJB (2000) Complex trace fossils from terminal Proterozoic of Namibia. Geology 28, 143–46.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jia, Y, Zhang, L, Zheng, J, Liu, X, Jeng, DS and Shan, H (2014) Effects of wave-induced seabed liquefaction on sediment re-suspension in the Yellow River Delta. Ocean Engineering 89, 146–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolesnikov, AV, Danelian, T, Gommeaux, M, Maslov, AV and Grazhdankin, DV (2017) Arumberiamorph structure in modern microbial mats: Implications for Ediacaran paleobiology. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France 188, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolesnikov, AV, Grazhdankin, DV and Maslov, AV (2012) Arumberia-type structures in the Upper Vendian of the Urals. Doklady Earth Sciences 447, 1233–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laflamme, M, Schiffbauer, JD, Narbonne, GM and Briggs, DEG (2011) Microbial biofilms and the preservation of the Ediacara biota. Lethaia 44, 203–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linnemann, U, Ovtcharova, M, Schaltegger, U, Gärtner, A, Hautmann, M, Geyer, G, Rich, T, Plessen, B, Hofmann, M, Zieger, J, Krause, R, Kriesfeld, L and Smith, J (2018) New high-resolution age data from the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary indicate rapid, ecologically driven onset of the Cambrian explosion. Terra Nova 31, 110.Google Scholar
Liu, AG (2016) Framboidal pyrite shroud confirms the ‘death mask’ model for moldic preservation of Ediacaran soft-bodied organisms. Palaios 31, 259–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, AG, McMahon, S, Matthews, JJ, Still, JW and Brasier, AT (2019) Petrological evidence supports the death mask model for the preservation of Ediacaran soft-bodied organisms in South Australia. Geology 47, 215–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowe, DR (1975) Water escape structures in coarse grained sediments. Sedimentology 22, 157204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowe, DR (1976) Subaqueous liquefied and fluidized sediment flows and their deposits. Sedimentology 23, 285308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacGabhann, BA (2007) Discoidal fossils of the Ediacaran biota: a review of current understanding. In The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota (eds P Vickers-Rich and P Komarower), pp. 297–313. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mángano, MG and Buatois, LA (2014) Decoupling of body-plan diversification and ecological structuring during the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition: evolutionary and geobiological feedbacks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281, 20140038.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mángano, MG and Buatois, LA (2020) The rise and early evolution of animals: where do we stand from a trace-fossil perspective? Interface Focus 10, 20190103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsumoto, D, Naruse, H, Shiehiro, F, Surphawajruksakul, A, Jarupongsakul, T, Sakakura, N and Murayama, M (2008) Truncated flame structures within a deposit of the Indian Ocean Tsunami: evidence of syn-sedimentary deformation. Sedimentology 55, 1559–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menon, LR, McIlroy, D and Brasier, MD (2013) Evidence for Cnidaria-like behavior in ca. 560 Ma Ediacaran Aspidella . Geology 41, 895–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menon, LR, McIlroy, D and Brasier, MD (2016) ‘Intrites’ from the Ediacaran Longmyndian Supergroup, UK: a new form of microbially-induced sedimentary structure (MISS). In Earth System Evolution and Early Life: A Celebration of the Work of Martin Brasier (eds AT Braiser, D McIlroy and N McLoughlin), pp. 271–83. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 448.Google Scholar
Menon, LR, McIlroy, D, Liu, AG and Brasier, MD (2015) The dynamic influence of microbial mats on sediments: fluid escape and pseudofossil formation in the Ediacaran Longmyndian Supergroup, UK. Journal of the Geological Society 173, 177–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, M, Xiao, S, Gill, BC, Schiffbauer, JD, Chen, Z, Zhou, C and Yuan, X (2014) Interactions between Ediacaran animals and microbial mats: insights from Lamonte trevallis, a new trace fossil from the Dengying Formation of South China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 396, 6274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moretti, M, Soria, JM, Alfaro, P and Walsh, BN (2001) Asymmetrical soft-sediment deformation structures triggered by rapid sedimentation in turbiditic deposits (Late Miocene, Guadix Basin, Southern Spain). Facies 44, 283–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nara, M (1995) Rosselia socialis: a dwelling structure of a probable terebellid polychaete. Lethaia 28, 171–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nara, M (1997) High-resolution analytical method for event sedimentation using Rosselia socialis . Palaeontology 12, 489–94.Google Scholar
Nara, M (2002) Crowded Rosselia socialis in Pleistocene inner shelf deposits: benthic paleoecology during rapid sea-level rise. Palaios 17, 268–76.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nara, M and Haga, M (2007) The youngest record of trace fossil Rosselia socialis: Occurrence in the Holocene shallow marine deposits of Japan. Paleontological Research 11, 21–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Narbonne, GM (2005) The Ediacara Biota: Neoproterozoic origin of animals and their ecosystems. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 33, 421–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Netto, RG (2012) Evidences of life in terminal Proterozoic deposits of southern Brazil: a synthesis. Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia Monografias 2, 1526.Google Scholar
Netto, RG, Tognoli, FMW, Assine, ML and Nara, M (2014) Crowded Rosselia ichnofabric in the early Devonian of Brazil: an example of strategic behavior. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 395, 107–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noffke, N, Gerdes, G and Klenke, T (2003) Benthic cyanobacteria and their influence on the sedimentary dynamics of peritidal depositional systems (siliciclastic, evaporitic salty, and evaporitic carbonatic). Earth-Science Reviews 62, 163–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noffke, N, Gerdes, G, Klenke, T and Krumbein, WE (1996) Microbially induced sedimentary structures – examples from modern sediments of siliciclastic tidal flats. Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie Teil I 1996, 307–16.Google Scholar
Noffke, N, Gerdes, G, Klenke, T and Krumbein, WE (2001) Microbially induced sedimentary structures indicating climatological, hydrological and depositional conditions within Recent and Pleistocene coastal facies zones (southern Tunisia). Facies 44, 2330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, G, Moretti, M and Alfaro, P (2011) Recognizing triggers for soft-sediment deformation: Current understanding and future directions. Sedimentary Geology 235, 133–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pickerill, RK and Harris, IM (1979) A reinterpretation of Astropolithon hindii Dawson 1878. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 49, 1029–36.Google Scholar
Poiré, DG, Gaucher, C and Germs, G (2007) La superficie “Barker” y su importancia regional, Neoproterozoico del Cratón del Río de La Plata. In 6 Jornadas Geológicas y Geofísicas Bonaerenses, 12–14 December 2007, Acta de Resúmenes 36, Mar del Plata.Google Scholar
Poiré, DG and Spalletti, LA (2005) La cubierta sedimentaria precambrica/paleozoica inferior del Sistema de Tandilia. In Geología y Recursos Minerales de la provincial de Buenos Aires (eds De Barrio, RE, Etcheverry, RO, Llambías, MF and Caballé, EJ), pp. 5168. La Plata: Relatorio del XVI Congreso Geologico Argentino.Google Scholar
Poiré, DG, Spaletti, LA and Del Valle, A (2003) The Cambrian-Ordovician siliciclastic platform of the Balcarce Formation (Tandilia System, Argentina): facies, trace fossils, palaeoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy. Geologica Acta 1, 4160.Google Scholar
Põldsaar, K and Ainsaar, L (2014) Extensive soft-sediment deformation structures in the early Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) shallow marine siliciclastic sediments formed on the Baltoscandian carbonate ramp, northwestern Estonia. Marine Geology 356, 111–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porada, H and Bouougri, EH (2007) Wrinkle structures-a critical review. Earth-Science Reviews 81, 199215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rapela, CW, Fanning, CM, Casquet, C, Pankhurst, RJ, Spalletti, L, Poiré, D and Baldo, EG (2011) The Rio de la Plata craton and the adjoining Pan-African/Brasiliano terranes: Their origins and incorporation into south-west Gondwana. Gondwana Research 20, 673–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rapela, CW, Pankhurst, RJ, Casquet, C, Fanning, CM, Baldo, EG, González-Casado, JM, Galindo, C and Dahlquist, J (2007) The Río de la Plata craton and the assembly of SW Gondwana. Earth-Science Reviews 83, 4982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reid, CM, Thompson, NK, Irvine, JRM and Laird, TE (2012) Sand volcanoes in the Avon-Heathcote Estuary produced by the 2010-2011 Christchurch Earthquakes: Implications for geological preservation and expression. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 55, 249–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodríguez-Pascua, MA, Silva, PG, Pérez-López, R, Giner-Robles, JL, Martín-González, F and Del Moral, B (2015) Polygenetic sand volcanoes: on the features of liquefaction processes generated by a single event (2012 Emilia Romagna 5.9Mw earthquake, Italy). Quaternary International 357, 329–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwid, MF, Xiao, S, Nolan, MR and An, Z (2021) Differential weathering of diagenetic concretions and the formation of Neoproterozoic annulated discoidal structures. Palaios 36, 1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seilacher, A, Buatois, LA and Mángano, MG (2005) Trace fossils in the Ediacaran – Cambrian transition: Behavioral diversification, ecological turnover and environmental shift. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 227, 323–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slagter, S, Tarhan, LG, Hao, W, Planavsky, NJ and Konhauser, KO (2020) Experimental evidence supports early silica cementation of the Ediacara Biota. Geology 49, 15.Google Scholar
Sprigg, RC (1947) Early Cambrian (?) jellyfishes from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 71, 212–24.Google Scholar
Sun, W (1986) Precambrian medusoids: the Cyclomedusa plexus and Cyclomedusa-like pseudofossils. Precambrian Research 31, 325–60.Google Scholar
Taj, RJ, Aref, MAM and Schreiber, BC (2014) The influence of microbial mats on the formation of sand volcanoes and mounds in the Red Sea coastal plain, south Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Sedimentary Geology 311, 6074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarhan, LG (2018) Phanerozoic shallow marine sole marks and substrate evolution. Geology 46, 755–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarhan, LG, Droser, ML and Gehling, JG (2010) Taphonomic controls on Ediacaran diversity: uncovering the holdfast origin of morphologically variable enigmatic structures. Palaios 25, 823–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarhan, LG, Droser, ML and Gehling, JG (2015) Depositional and preservational environments of the Ediacara Member, Rawnsley Quartzite (South Australia): Assessment of paleoenvironmental proxies and the timing of ‘ferruginization’. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 434, 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarhan, LG, Hood, AS, Droser, ML, Gehling, JG and Briggs, DEG (2016) Exceptional preservation of soft-bodied Ediacara Biota promoted by silica-rich oceans. Geology 44, 951–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tu, C, Chen, ZQ, Retallack, GJ, Huang, Y and Fang, Y (2016) Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. Sedimentary Geology 333, 5069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Loon, AJ (2008) The nature of Mawsonites (Ediacara fauna). Gondwana Research 14, 175–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Loon, AJ and Maulik, P (2011) Abraded sand volcanoes as a tool for recognizing paleo-earthquakes, with examples from the Cisuralian Talchir Formation near Angul (Orissa, eastern India). Sedimentary Geology 238, 145–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wade, M (1969) Medusae from uppermost Precambrian or Cambrian sandstones, central Australia. Palaeontology 12, 351–65.Google Scholar
Westergård, AH (1931) Diplocraterion, Monocraterion and Skolithos from the lower Cambrian of Sweden. Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning 372, 335.Google Scholar
Xiao, S, Chen, Z, Zhou, C and Yuan, X (2019) Surfing in and on microbial mats: Oxygen-related behavior of a terminal Ediacaran bilaterian animal. Geology 47, 1054–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiao, S and Laflamme, M (2009) On the eve of animal radiation: phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24, 3140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xu, G, Sun, Y, Yu, Y, Lin, L, Hu, G, Zhao, Q and Guo, X (2012) Discussion on storm-induced liquefaction of the superficial stratum in the Yellow River subaqueous delta. Marine Science Bulletin 14, 8088.Google Scholar

Inglez et al. supplementary material

Inglez et al. supplementary material 1

Download Inglez et al. supplementary material(Video)
Video 5 MB

Inglez et al. supplementary material

Inglez et al. supplementary material 2

Download Inglez et al. supplementary material(Video)
Video 3 MB
Supplementary material: PDF

Inglez et al. supplementary material

Inglez et al. supplementary material 3

Download Inglez et al. supplementary material(PDF)

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Scratching the discs: evaluating alternative hypotheses for the origin of the Ediacaran discoidal structures from the Cerro Negro Formation, La Providencia Group, Argentina
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Scratching the discs: evaluating alternative hypotheses for the origin of the Ediacaran discoidal structures from the Cerro Negro Formation, La Providencia Group, Argentina
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Scratching the discs: evaluating alternative hypotheses for the origin of the Ediacaran discoidal structures from the Cerro Negro Formation, La Providencia Group, Argentina
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *