Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-bqjwj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-07T15:58:21.830Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Genesis of coronae and implications of an early Neoproterozoic thermal event: a case study from SE Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex, India

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 May 2020

Vedanta Adak
Department of Applied Geology, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad826004, India
Upama Dutta*
Department of Applied Geology, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad826004, India
Author for correspondence: Upama Dutta, Email:


Partial equilibrium textures such as corona provide information on changing pressure–temperature (P-T) conditions experienced by a rock during its geological evolution. Coronae layers may form in single or multiple stages; understanding the genesis of each layer is necessary to correctly extract information regarding the physicochemical conditions experienced by the rock. Mafic rocks from SE Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex, India, show the presence of multi-layered coronae at olivine–plagioclase contact with the mineral sequence: olivine | orthopyroxene | amphibole + spinel | plagioclase. Textural studies indicate that the coronae formed during metamorphism in a single stage due to a reaction between olivine and plagioclase. Reaction modelling shows that the corona formation occurred in an open system and experienced a minor volume loss. Pseudosection modelling and thermobarometry suggest that the P-T conditions related to corona formation are 860 ± 50°C and 7 ± 0.5 kbar. A μMgOCaO diagram shows that the layers in coronae formed in response to chemical potential gradients between the reactant minerals. A combination of field observations and the P-T conditions of coronae formation suggest a fluid-driven metamorphism. Correlation with extant geological information indicates that the corona-forming event is possibly related to the accretion of India and Antarctica during the assembly of Rodinia.

Original Article
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ambler, EP and Ashley, PM (1977) Vermicular orthopyroxene-magnetite symplectites from the Wateranga layered mafic intrusion, Queensland, Australia. Lithos 10, 163–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ashworth, JR and Sheplev, VS (1997) Diffusion modelling of metamorphic layered coronas with stability criterion and consideration of affinity. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61, 36713689.Google Scholar
Baharifar, AA (2019) Petrology of spinel-gedrite-cordierite symplectites replacing andalusite in migmatites from the Sarabi area, Hamedan, Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone, Iran. Petrology 27, 202221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, M, Dutta, U, Anand, R and Atlas, ZD (2019) Insights on the process of two-stage coronae formation at olivine-plagioclase contact in mafic dyke from Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone, southern India. Mineralogy and Petrology 113, 625–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barton, M and Van Gaans, C (1988) Formation of orthopyroxene-Fe-Ti oxide symplectites in Precambrian intrusives, Rogaland, southwestern Norway. American Mineralogist 73, 1046–59.Google Scholar
Bhattacharjee, N, Ray, J, Ganguly, S and Saha, A (2012) Mineralogical study of gabbro-anorthosite from Dumka, Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex, Eastern Indian Shield. Journal of the Geological Society of India 80, 481–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhattacharyya, PK and Mukherjee, S (1987) Granulites in and around the Bengal anorthosite, eastern India; genesis of coronal garnet, and evolution of the granulite-anorthosite complex. Geological Magazine 124, 2132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhattacharya, DK, Mukherjee, D and Barla, VC (2010) Komatiite within Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex at Semra, Palamau district, Jharkhand: petrological and geochemical fingerprints. Journal of the Geological Society of India 76, 589606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolin, C, Mingguo, Z, Carswell, DA, Wilson, RN, Qingchen, W, Zhongyan, Z and Windley, BF (1995) Petrogenesis of ultrahigh-pressure rocks and their country rocks at Shuanghe in Dabieshan, central China. European Journal of Mineralogy 7, 119–38.Google Scholar
Candia, MAF, Mazzucchelli, M and Siena, F (1989) Sub-solidus reactions and corona structures in the Niquelândia layered complex (Central Goiás, Brazil). Mineralogy and Petrology 40, 1737.Google Scholar
Carlson, WD (2002) Scales of disequilibrium and rates of equilibration during metamorphism. American Mineralogist 87, 185204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carmichael, DM (1969) On the mechanism of prograde metamorphic reactions in quartz-bearing pelitic rocks. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 20, 244–67.Google Scholar
Chatterjee, N (2018) An assembly of the Indian Shield at c. 1.0 Ga and shearing at c. 876–784 Ma in Eastern India: insights from contrasting PT paths, and burial and exhumation rates of metapelitic granulites. Precambrian Research 317, 117–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatterjee, N, Banerjee, M, Bhattacharya, A and Maji, AK (2010) Monazite chronology, metamorphism–anatexis and tectonic relevance of the mid-Neoproterozoic Eastern Indian Tectonic Zone. Precambrian Research 179, 99120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatterjee, N, Crowley, JL and Ghose, NC (2008) Geochronology of the 1.55 Ga Bengal anorthosite and Grenvillian metamorphism in the Chotanagpur gneissic complex, eastern India. Precambrian Research 161, 303–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatterjee, N and Ghose, NC (2011) Extensive early Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism in north Chotanagpur gneissic complex of the Central Indian tectonic zone. Gondwana Research, 20, 362–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chowdhury, P, Talukdar, M, Sengupta, P, Sanyal, S and Mukhopadhyay, D (2013) Controls of P-T path and element mobility on the formation of corundum pseudomorphs in Paleoproterozoic high-pressure anorthosite from Sittampundi, Tamil Nadu, India. American Mineralogist 98, 1725–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Claeson, DT (1998) Coronas, reaction rims, symplectites and emplacement depth of the Rymmen gabbro, Transscandinavian Igneous Belt, southern Sweden. Mineralogical Magazine 62, 743–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connolly, JA (2005) Computation of phase equilibria by linear programming: a tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to subduction zone decarbonation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 236, 524–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalziel, IWD (1991) Pacific margins of Laurentia and East Antarctica-Australia as a conjugate rift pair: Evidence and implications for an Eocambrian supercontinent. Geology 19, 598601.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daogong, H, Zhenhan, W, Wan, J and Peisheng, Y (2004) P-T-t path of mafic granulite metamorphism in northern Tibet and its geodynamical implications. Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition, 78, 155–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Das, S, Sanyal, S, Karmakar, S, Sengupta, S and Sengupta, P (2019) Do the deformed alkaline rocks always serve as a marker of continental suture zone? A case study from parts of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex, India. Journal of Geodynamics 129, 5979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dasgupta, S and Sengupta, P (2003) Indo-Antarctic correlation: a perspective from the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India. In Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent Assembly and Breakup (eds Yoshida, M, Windley, BE and Dasgupta, S), pp. 131–43. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dasgupta, S, Sengupta, P, Mondal, A and Fukuoka, M (1993) Mineral chemistry and reaction textures in metabasites from the Eastern Ghats belt, India and their implications. Mineralogical Magazine 57, 113–20.Google Scholar
de Haas, GJL, Nijland, TG, Valbracht, PJ, Maijer, C, Verschure, R and Andersen, T (2002) Magmatic versus metamorphic origin of olivine-plagioclase coronas. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 143, 537–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dey, A, Karmakar, S, Mukherjee, S, Sanyal, S, Dutta, U and Sengupta, P (2019) High pressure metamorphism of mafic granulites from the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex, India: Evidence for collisional tectonics during assembly of Rodinia. Journal of Geodynamics 129, 2443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Droop, GTR (1987) A general equation for estimating Fe3+ concentrations in ferromagnesian silicates and oxides from microprobe analyses, using stoichiometric criteria. Mineralogical Magazine 51, 431–5.Google Scholar
Esbensen, KH (1978) Coronites from the Fongen gabbro complex, Trondheim region, Norway: role of water in the olivine-plagioclase reaction. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie – Abhandlungen 132(2), 113–35.Google Scholar
Faryad, SW, Kachlík, V, Sláma, J and Hoinkes, G (2015) Implication of corona formation in a metatroctolite to the granulite facies overprint of HP–UHP rocks in the Moldanubian Zone (Bohemian Massif). Journal of Metamorphic Geology 33, 295310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, GW (1973) Nonequilibrium thermodynamics as a model for diffusion-controlled metamorphic processes. American Journal of Science 273, 897924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frodesen, S (1968) Coronas around olivine in a small gabbro intrusion, Bamble area, South Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 48, 201–06.Google Scholar
Gaidies, F, Milke, R, Heinrich, W, Abart, R and Heinrich, W (2017) Metamorphic mineral reactions: Porphyroblast, corona and symplectite growth. EMU Notes Mineral 16, 469540.Google Scholar
Gallien, F, Mogessie, A, Hauzenberger, CA, Bjerg, E, Delpino, S and Castro de Machuca, B (2012) On the origin of multi-layer coronas between olivine and plagioclase at the gabbro–granulite transition, Valle Fértil–La Huerta Ranges, San Juan Province, Argentina. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 30, 281302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghose, NC and Mukherjee, D (2000) Chhotanagpur gneissgranulite complex, Eastern India–A kaleidoscope of global events. In Geology and Mineral Resources of Bihar and Jharkhand (eds Trivedi, AN, Sarkar, BC, Ghose, NC and Dhar, YR), pp. 33–58. Platinum Jubilee Commemoration Volume, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Institute of Geoexploration and Environment, Monograph no. 2.Google Scholar
Gill, JB (1981) What is “Typical Calcalkaline Andesite”? In Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics (eds Wyllie, PJ, El Goresy, A, von Engelhardt, W and Hahn, T), pp. 112. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goergen, ET and Whitney, DL (2012) Long length scales of element transport during reaction texture development in orthoamphibole-cordierite gneiss: Thor-Odin dome, British Columbia, Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 163, 337–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goswami, B and Bhattacharyya, C (2013) Petrogenesis of shoshonitic granitoids, eastern India: Implications for the late Grenvillian post-collisional magmatism. Geoscience Frontiers 5, 821–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, SM (1988) Diffusion models for corona formation in metagabbros from the Western Grenville Province, Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 98, 4963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, E, Holland, T and Powell, R (2007) An order-disorder model for omphacitic pyroxenes in the system jadeite-diopside-hedenbergite-acmite, with applications to eclogitic rocks. American Mineralogist 92, 1181–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, ECR, White, RW, Diener, JFA, Powell, R, Holland, TJB and Palin, RM (2016) Activity–composition relations for the calculation of partial melting equilibria in metabasic rocks. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 34, 845–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, WL (1971) Genesis of coronas in anorthosites of the Upper Jotun nappe, Indre Sogn, Norway. Journal of Petrology 12, 219–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, WL (1972) Formation of eclogites and the coronas in anorthosites, Bergen Arcs, Norway. In Studies in Mineralogy and Precambrian Geology (eds Doe, BR and Smith, D Kingsley), pp. 37–63. Geological Society of America, Memoir no. 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, WL and Heier, KS (1973) Petrological implications of some corona structures. Lithos 6, 315–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, PF (1989) Speculations on Laurentia’s first gigayear. Geology 17, 135–8.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, T and Blundy, J (1994) Non-ideal interactions in calcic amphiboles and their bearing on amphibole-plagioclase thermometry. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 116, 433–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, T and Powell, R (2003) Activity–composition relations for phases in petrological calculations: an asymmetric multicomponent formulation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 145, 492501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, TJB and Powell, R (1998) An internally consistent thermodynamic data set for phases of petrological interest. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 16, 309–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, TJB and Powell, R (2011) An improved and extended internally consistent thermodynamic dataset for phases of petrological interest, involving a new equation of state for solids. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 29, 333–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ikeda, T, Nishiyama, T, Yamada, S and Yanagi, T (2007) Microstructures of olivine-plagioclase corona in meta-ultramafic rocks from Sefuri Mountains, NW Kyushu, Japan. Lithos 97, 289306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Indares, A (1993) Eclogitized gabbros from the eastern Grenville Province: textures, metamorphic context, and implications. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30, 159–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jašarová, P, Racek, M, Jeřábe, P and Holub, FV (2016) Metamorphic reactions and textural changes in coronitic metagabbros from the Teplá Crystalline and Mariánské Lázně complexes, Bohemian Massif. Journal of Geosciences 61, 192219.Google Scholar
Joanny, V, van Roermund, H and Lardeaux, JM (1991) The clinopyroxene/plagioclase symplectite in retrograde eclogites: a potential geothermobarometer. Geologische Rundschau 80, 303–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joesten, R (1977) Evolution of mineral assemblage zoning in diffusion metasomatism. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41, 649–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joesten, R (1986) The role of magmatic reaction, diffusion and annealing in the evolution of coronitic microstructure in troctolitic gabbro from Risör, Norway. Mineralogical Magazine 50, 441–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johansson, Å, Andersson, UB and Hålenius, U (2012) Petrogenesis and geotectonic setting of early Svecofennian arc cumulates in the Roslagen area, east-central Sweden. Geological Journal 47, 557–93.Google Scholar
Johnson, CD and Carlson, WD (1990) The origin of olivine-plagioclase coronas in metagabbros from the Adirondack Mountains, New York. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 8, 697717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, MC and Rutherford, MJ (1989) Experimental calibration of the aluminum-in-hornblende geobarometer with application to Long Valley caldera (California) volcanic rocks. Geology 17, 837–41.Google Scholar
Karmakar, S, Bose, S, Sarbadhikari, AB and Das, K (2011) Evolution of granulite enclaves and associated gneisses from Purulia, Chhotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex, India: evidence for 990–940 Ma tectonothermal event(s) at the eastern India cratonic fringe zone. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 41, 6988.Google Scholar
Kelsey, DE and Hand, M (2015) On ultrahigh temperature crustal metamorphism: phase equilibria, trace element thermometry, bulk composition, heat sources, timescales and tectonic settings. Geoscience Frontiers 6, 311–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendrick, JL and Jamieson, RA (2016) The fate of olivine in the lower crust: Pseudomorphs after olivine in coronitic metagabbro from the Grenville Orogen, Ontario. Lithos 260, 356370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Korzhinskiĭ, DS (1959) Physicochemical Basis of the Analysis of the Paragenesis of Minerals. New York: Consultants Bureau, 142 p.Google Scholar
Lang, HM and Gilotti, JA (2001) Plagioclase replacement textures in partially eclogitised gabbros from the Sanddal mafic-ultramafic complex, Greenland Caledonides. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 19, 497517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lang, HM and Rice, JM (1985) Regression modelling of metamorphic reactions in metapelites, Snow Peak, Northern Idaho. Journal of Petrology 26, 857–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lang, HM, Wachter, AJ, Peterson, VL and Ryan, JG (2004) Coexisting clinopyroxene/spinel and amphibole/spinel symplectites in metatroctolites from the Buck Creek ultramafic body, North Carolina Blue Ridge. American Mineralogist 89, 2030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larikova, TL and Zaraisky, GP (2009) Experimental modelling of corona textures. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 27, 139–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leake, BE, Wooley, AR, Arps, CE, Birch, WD, Gilbert, MC, Grice, JD, Hawthorne, FC, Kato, A, Kisch, HJ, Krivovichec, VG and Linthout, K (1997) Nomenclature of amphiboles; report of the Subcommittee on amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. European Journal of Mineralogy 9, 623651.Google Scholar
Li, ZX, Bogdanova, SV, Collins, AS, Davidson, A, De Waele, B, Ernst, RE, Fitzsimons, ICW, Fuck, RA, Gladkochub, DP, Jacobs, J and Karlstrom, KE (2008) Assembly, configuration, and break-up history of Rodinia: a synthesis. Precambrian Research 160, 179210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, F, Gerdes, A, Zeng, L and Xue, H (2008) SHRIMP U–Pb dating, trace elements and the Lu–Hf isotope system of coesite-bearing zircon from amphibolite in the SW Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72, 29733000.Google Scholar
Mahadevan, TM (2002) Geology of Bihar and Jharkhand. Bangalore: Geological Society of India, 563 p.Google Scholar
Mahmoud, MY, Mitra, AK, Dhar, R, Sarkar, S and Mandal, N (2008) Repeated emplacement of syntectonic pegmatites in Precambrian granite gneisses: indication of pulsating brittle-ductile rheological transitions. In Indian Dykes: Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Geochronology (ed. Srivastava, RK). New Delhi, India: Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., pp. 495510.Google Scholar
Maji, AK, Goon, S, Bhattacharya, A, Mishra, B, Mahato, S and Bernhardt, HJ (2008) Proterozoic polyphase metamorphism in the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (India), and implication for trans-continental Gondwanaland correlation. Precambrian Research 162, 385402.Google Scholar
Mandal, A and Ray, A (2015) Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic–mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India). Journal of Earth System Science 124, 1781–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McSween, HY and Nystrom, PG (1979) Mineralogy and petrology of the Dutchmans Creek gabbroic intrusion, South Carolina. American Mineralogist 64, 531–45.Google Scholar
Meert, JG, Pandit, MK, Pradhan, VR, Banks, J, Sirianni, R, Stroud, M, Newstead, B and Gifford, J (2010) Precambrian crustal evolution of Peninsular India: a 3.0-billion-year odyssey. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 39, 483–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milke, R, Neusser, G, Kolzer, K and Wunder, B (2013) Very little water is necessary to make a dry solid silicate system wet. Geology 41, 247250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mongkoltip, P and Ashworth, JR (1983) Quantitative estimation of an open-system symplectite-forming reaction: restricted diffusion of Al and Si in coronas around olivine. Journal of Petrology 24, 635–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morton, RD, Batey, RH and O’Nions, RK (1970) Geological investigations in the Bamble sector of the Fennoscandian shield in South Norway I. the geology of eastern Bamble sector. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse Bulletin 263, 172.Google Scholar
Mueller, T, Watson, EB and Harrison, TM (2010) Applications of diffusion data to high-temperature earth systems. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 72, 9971038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukai, H, Austrheim, H, Putnis, CV and Putnis, A (2014) Textural evolution of plagioclase feldspar across a shear zone: implications for deformation mechanism and rock strength. Journal of Petrology 55, 1457–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukherjee, S, Dey, A, Sanyal, S, Ibanez-Mejia, M, Dutta, U and Sengupta, P (2017) Petrology and U–Pb geochronology of zircon in a suite of charnockitic gneisses from parts of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC): evidence for the reworking of a Mesoproterozoic basement during the formation of the Rodinia supercontinent. In Crustal Evolution of India and Antarctica: The Supercontinent Connection (eds Pant, NC and Dasgupta, S), pp. 197231. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 457.Google Scholar
Mukherjee, S, Dey, A, Sanyal, S and Sengupta, P (2018) Tectonothermal imprints in a suite of mafic dykes from the Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic complex (CGGC), Jharkhand, India: Evidence for late Tonian reworking of an early Tonian continental crust. Lithos 320, 490514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukherjee, S, Dey, A, Sanyal, S and Sengupta, P (2019) Proterozoic crustal evolution of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic complex, Jharkhand-Bihar-West Bengal, India: current status and future prospect. In Tectonics and Structural Geology: Indian Context (ed. Mukherjee, S), pp. 754. Cham: Springer International Publishing AG.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukherjee, D, Ghose, NC and Chatterjee, N (2005) Crystallization history of a massif anorthosite in the eastern Indian shield margin based on borehole lithology. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 25, 7794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murthy, MN (1958) Coronites from India and their bearing on the origin of coronas. Geological Society of America Bulletin 69, 2338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nasipuri, P, Bhattacharya, A and Das, S (2009) Metamorphic reactions in dry and aluminous granulites: a Perple_X P–T pseudosection analysis of the influence of effective reaction volume. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 157, 301311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ogilvie, P and Gibson, RL (2017) Arrested development–a comparative analysis of multilayer corona textures in high-grade metamorphic rocks. Solid Earth 8, 93135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palin, RM, Weller, OM, Waters, DJ and Dyck, B (2016) Quantifying geological uncertainty in metamorphic phase equilibria modelling; a Monte Carlo assessment and implications for tectonic interpretations. Geoscience Frontiers 7, 591607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polat, A, Fryer, BJ, Samson, IM, Weisener, C, Appel, PW, Frei, R and Windley, BF (2012) Geochemistry of ultramafic rocks and hornblendite veins in the Fiskenæsset layered anorthosite complex, SW Greenland: Evidence for hydrous upper mantle in the Archean. Precambrian Research 214, 124–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, R, Guiraud, M and White, RW (2005) Truth and beauty in metamorphic phase-equilibria: conjugate variables and phase diagrams. The Canadian Mineralogist 43, 2133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnis, A and Austrheim, H (2010) Fluid-induced processes: metasomatism and metamorphism. Geofluids 10, 254–69.Google Scholar
Reynolds, RC Jr and Frederickson, AF (1962) Corona development in Norwegian hyperites and its bearing on the metamorphic facies concept. Geological Society of America Bulletin 73, 5972.Google Scholar
Rivers, T and Mengel, FC (1988) Contrasting assemblages and petrogenetic evolution of corona and noncorona gabbros in the Grenville Province of western Labrador. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 25, 1629–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roy, AK (1977) Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Bengal anorthosite and associated rocks. Journal of the Geological Society of India 18, 203–23.Google Scholar
Sanyal, S and Sengupta, P (2012) Metamorphic evolution of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex of the East Indian Shield: current status. In Palaeoproterozoic of India (eds Mazumder, R and Saha, D), pp. 117–45. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sederholm, J (1916) On synantetic minerals and related phenomenon. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 48, 159.Google Scholar
Spruzeniece, L, Piazolo, S, Daczko, NR, Kilburn, MR and Putnis, A (2017) Symplectite formation in the presence of a reactive fluid: insights from hydrothermal experiments. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 35, 281–99.Google Scholar
Srivastava, RK, Heaman, LM, French, JE and Ferreira Filho, CF (2011) Evidence for a Paleoproterozic event of metamorphism in the Bastar craton, central India: PTt constraints from mineral chemistry and U-Pb geochronology of mafic dykes. Episodes 34, 1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stüwe, K (1997) Effective bulk composition changes due to cooling: a model predicting complexities in retrograde reaction textures. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 129, 4352.Google Scholar
Svahnberg, H and Piazolo, S (2013) Interaction of chemical and physical processes during deformation at fluid-present conditions: a case study from an anorthosite–leucogabbro deformed at amphibolite facies conditions. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 165, 543–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, JB (1959) Local equilibrium in metasomatic processes. In Researches in Geochemistry (ed. Abelson, PH), pp. 427–57. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Torres-Roldan, RL, Garcia-Casco, A and Garcia-Sanchez, PA (2000) CSpace: An integrated workplace for the graphical and algebraic analysis of phase assemblages on 32-bit Wintel platforms. Computers & Geosciences 26, 779–93.Google Scholar
Tuisku, P and Makkonen, HV (1999) Spinel-bearing symplectites in Palaeoproterozoic ultramafic rocks from two different geological settings in Finland: thermobarometric and tectonic implications. GFF 121, 293300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, SP and Stüwe, K (1992) Low-pressure corona textures between olivine and plagioclase in unmetamorphosed gabbros from Black Hill, South Australia. Mineralogical Magazine 56, 503–09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lamoen, H (1979) Coronas in olivine gabbros and iron ores from Susimäki and Riuttamaa, Finland. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 68, 259–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernon, R (2004) A Practical Guide to Rock Microstructure. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernon, RH, White, RW and Clarke, GL (2008) False metamorphic events inferred from misinterpretation of microstructural evidence and P–T data. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 26, 437449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wayte, GJ, Worden, RH, Rubie, DC and Droop, GT (1989) A TEM study of disequilibrium plagioclase breakdown at high pressure: the role of infiltrating fluid. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 101, 426–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, RW and Powell, R (2011) On the interpretation of retrograde reaction textures in granulite facies rocks. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 29, 131–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, RW, Powell, R and Baldwin, JA (2008) Calculated phase equilibria involving chemical potentials to investigate the textural evolution of metamorphic rocks. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 26, 181–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, RW, Powell, R and Clarke, GL (2002) The interpretation of reaction textures in Fe-rich metapelitic granulites of the Musgrave Block, central Australia: constraints from mineral equilibria calculations in the system K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O–TiO2–Fe2O3 . Journal of Metamorphic Geology 20, 4155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, RW, Powell, R, Holland, TJB, Johnson, TE and Green, ECR (2014) New mineral activity–composition relations for thermodynamic calculations in metapelitic systems. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 32, 261–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitney, DL and Evans, BW (2010) Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist 95, 185–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitney, PR and McLelland, JM (1973) Origin of coronas in metagabbros of the Adirondack Mts, NY. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 39, 8198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitney, PR and McLelland, JM (1983) Origin of biotite-hornblende-garnet coronas between oxides and plagioclase in olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Region, New York. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 82, 3441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeck, HP, Shenouda, HH, Rønsbo, JG and Poorter, RPE (1982) Hypersthene-ilmenite (/magnetite) symplectites in coronitic olivine-gabbronorites. Lithos 15, 173–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar