Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-2wqtr Total loading time: 0.278 Render date: 2021-09-22T06:27:44.751Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

The development of fetal hearing

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 October 2008

Peter G Hepper*
School of Psychology, The Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, UK
BS Shahidullah
School of Psychology, The Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, UK
Professor Peter G Hepper, School of Psychology, The Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, BT7 INN, N Ireland


The developmental origins of the ability to hear have been the subject of much debate and speculation. Since time immemorial, there has been much anecdotal evidence that the fetus responds to sound. In contrast, until the late 19th Century, scientific evidence and opinion held that the newborn was deaf and only developed the ability to hear in the first weeks after birth. At the beginning of the 20th Century the prevailing scientific and clinical view changed and it was accepted that the newborn was able to hear at birth. This led to much speculation about, and limited experimental study of, when the individual first started to hear. Detailed study of the ontogency of auditory abilities had to wait until the 1980’s when scientific opinion regarding the abilities of the newborn changed and the ultrasound technology with which to observe the fetus in utero became widely available. Research thus commenced in earnest to investigate the response of the fetus to sound. Despite this increased interest in fetal hearing, experimental studies have concentrated upon the responsiveness to sound in late pregnancy and not on the developmental origine of auditory abilities. It is the aim of this review to examine the ontogenesis of hearing in the fetus.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1994

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1Hepper, PG. Fetal psychology: an embryonic science. In: JG, Nijhuis ed. Fetal behaviour: developmental and perinatal aspects. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992: 129–56.Google Scholar
2Kussmaul, A. Untersuchungen uber das Seelenleben des neugeborenen menschen. Leipzig: Winter, 1859.Google Scholar
3Pratt, KC, Nelson, AK, Sun, KH. The behaviour of the newborn infant. Ohio State Uni Stud Psychol 1930; 10: 7895.Google Scholar
4Peterson, JF, Rainey, LH. The beginning of mind in the newborn. Bull Lying-in Hospital, City of New York 1910; 7: 99122.Google Scholar
5Hepper, PG, Shahidullah, S. Noise and the fetus. London: HMSO, 1994: in press.Google Scholar
6Pujol, R, Harding, DA. Anatomy and physiology of the onset of auditory function. Acta Oto-laryngol 1973; 76: 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7Pujol, R, Lavigne-Rebillard, M, Uziel, A. Physiological correlates of development of the human cochlea. Semin Perinatol 1990; 14; 275–80.Google ScholarPubMed
8Pujol, R, Lavigne-Rebillard, M, Uziel, A. Development of the human cochlea. Acta Oto-laryngol 1991; 482: 712.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9Shahidullah, BS. Hearing in the fetus. MD Thesis: The Queen’s University of Belfast.Google Scholar
10Lecanuet, JP, Granier-Deferre, C, Busnel, M. Differential fetal auditory reactiveness as a function of stimulus characteristics and state. Semin Perinatol 1989; 13: 421–29.Google Scholar
11Querleu, D, Renard, X, Boutteville, C, Crèpin, G. Hearing by the human fetus? Semin Perinatol 1989; 13: 409–20.Google ScholarPubMed
12Querleu, D, Renard, X, Versyp, F, Paris-Delrue, L, Crèpin, G. Fetal hearing. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1988; 29: 191212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13Eggermont, JJ. Development of auditory evoked potentials. Acta Oto-laryngol 1992; 112: 197200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14Kemp, D. Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system. J Acoust Soc Am 1978; 64: 1386–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15Nijhuis, JG. Behavioral states: concomitants, clinical implications and the assessment of the condition of the nervous system. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1986; 21: 301308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16Schmidt, W, Boos, R, Gnirs, J, Auer, L, Schulze, S. Fetal behavioural states and controlled sound stimulation. Early Hum Dev 1985; 12: 145–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17Weiner, E, Serr, DM, Shalev, E. Fetal motorical and heart response to sound stimulus in behavioural states. Gynaecol Obstet Invest 1989; 28: 141–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18Bench, J. Sound transmission to the human foetus through the maternal abdomen wall. J Genet Psychol 1968; 113: 8587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19Henschall, WR. Intrauterine sound levels. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1972; 112: 576–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20Querleu, D, Renard, X, Crèpin, G. Bruit intra-utèrin et perceptions auditives du foetus. Bull Acad Nat Med 1981; 165: 581–88.Google Scholar
21Walker, D, Grimwade, J, Wood, C. Intrauterine noise: a component of the fetal environment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1971; 109: 9195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22Richards, DS, Frentzen, B, Gerhardt, KG, McCann, M, Abrams, R. Sound levels in the human fetus. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 80: 186–90.Google Scholar
23Szmeja, Z, Slomka, Z, Sikorski, K, Sowinski, H. The risk of hearing impairment in children from mothers exposed to noise during pregnancy. Int J Paed Otorhinolaryngol 1979; 1: 221–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24Salk, L. The effects of the normal heartbeat sound on the behaviour of the newborn infant. implications for mental health. World Mental Health 1960; 12: 168–75.Google Scholar
25Salk, L. Mothers’ heartbeat as an imprinting stimulus. Trans NY Acad Sci 1962; 24: 753–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26Detterman, DK. The effect of heartbeat on neonatal crying. Infant Behav Dev 1978; 1: 3648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27Palmqvist, H. The effect of heart beat sound stimulation on the weightm development of newborn infant. Child Dev 1975; 46: 292–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28Roberts, B, Campbell, D. Activity in newborns and the sound of a human heart. Psychiat Sci 1967; 9: 339–40.Google Scholar
29Smith, CR, Steinschneider, A. Differential effects of prenatal rhythmic stimulation on arousal states. Child Dev 1975; 46: 574–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30Hepper, PG. Foetal learning: implications for psychiatry? Br J Psychiatry 1989; 155: 289–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31DeCasper, AJ, Fifer, WP. Of human bonding: newborns prefer their mothers’ vioces. Science 1980; 208: 1174–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32Hepper, PG, Scott, DS, Shahidullah, S. Newborn and fetal response to maternal voice. J Reprod Infant Psychol 1993; 11: 147–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33Querleu, D, Lefebvre, C, Renard, X, Titran, M, Morillion, M, Crèpin, G. Rèactivitè du nouveau-nè de moins de deux heures de vie à la voix maternelle. J Gynecol Obstet Reprod Biol 1984; 13: 125–34.Google Scholar
34DeCasper, AJ, Spence, MJ. Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns’ perception of speech sound. Infant Behav Dev 1986; 9: 133–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35Fifer, WP, Moon, C. Psychobiology of newborn auditory preferences. Semin Perinatol 1989; 13: 430–33.Google ScholarPubMed
36Feijoo, J. Le foetus Price et le loup… ou une approche originale de l’ audition prenatale humaine. In: Herbinet, E, Busnel, MC eds, L’aube des sens. Paris: Stock, 1981: 192209.Google Scholar
37Hepper, PG. Fetal “soap” addiction. Lancet 1988; i: 1347–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38Hepper, PG. An examination of fetal learning before and after birth. Irish J Psychol 1991; 12: 95107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39Satt, BJ. An investigation into the acoustical induction of intra-uterine learning. PhD Thesis: California School of Professional Psychology, 1984.Google Scholar
40Goodlin, RC, Schmidt, W. Human fetal arousal levels as indicated by heart rate recordings. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1972; 114: 613–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41Leader, LR, Baille, P, Martin, B, Vermeulen, E. The assessment and significance of habituation to a repeated stimulus by the human fetus. Early Hum Dev 1982; 7: 211–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42Crade, M, Lovett, S. Fetal response to sound stimulation: preliminary report on exploring the use of sound stimulation in routine on exploring the use of sound stimulation in routine obstetrical ultrasound examinations. J Ultrasound Med 1988; 7: 499503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43Peiper, A. Sinnesempfindungen des Kindes vor seiner Geburt. Monat Kinderheilkunde 1925; 29: 237–41.Google Scholar
44Prenzlau, P, Hoffman, H. Ein nicht invasiver Streβtest zur fetalen Bewegungesstimulation. Zentral Gynaekol 1982; 104: 960–64.Google Scholar
45Hepper, PG, Shahidullah, S. Habituation in normal and Down’s syndrome fetuses. Q J Exp Psychol 1992; 44B: 305–17.Google Scholar
46Boos, R, Gnirs, J, Auer, L, Schmidt, W. Controlled acoustic and light stimulation of the fetus in the third trimester. Z fuer Geburt Perinatol 1987; 191: 154–61.Google Scholar
47Lecanuet, JP, Granier-Deferre, C, Cohen, H, le Houezec, R, Busnel, MC. Fetal responses to acoustic stimulation depends on heart rate variability pattern, stimulus intensity and repetition. Early Hum Dev 1986; 13: 269–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48Lecanuet, JP, Granier-Deferre, C, DeCasper, AJ, Maugeais, R, Andrieu, AJ, Busnel, MC. Perception et discrimination foetales de stimuli langagiers; mise en evidence a partir de la reactivite cardiaque; resultats prèliminaires. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences (Paris) 1987; 305: 161–64.Google Scholar
49Kuhlman, KA, Burns, KA, Depp, R, Sabbagha, RE. Ultrasonic imaging of normal fetal response to external vibratory acoustic stimulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 158: 4751.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
50Gelman, SR, Wood, S, Spellacy, WN, Abrams, RM. Fetal movements in response to sound stimulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982; 143: 483–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51Gagnon, R, Hunse, C, Carmichael, L, Fellows, F, Patrick, J. Effect of vibratory acoustic stimulation on human fetal breathing and gross fetal body movements near term. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155: 1227–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
52Luz, NP. Auditory evoked responses in the human fetus. II. Modifications observed during labour. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1985; 64: 213–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
53Druzin, ML, Ederscheim, TG, Hutson, JM, Bond, AL. The effects of vibroacoustic stimulation on the non-stress test at gestational ages of 32 weeks or less. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989; 161: 1476–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54Gagnon, R. Stimulation of human fetuses with sound and vibration. Semin Perinatol 1989; 13: 393402.Google ScholarPubMed
55Kisilevsky, BS, Muir, DW. Maturation of responses elirefd by a vibroacoustic stimulus in a group of highrisk fetuses. Mat-Child Nurs J 1990; 19: 239–50.Google Scholar
56Sontag, LW, Wallace, RF. Preliminary report of the Fels Fund. Study of fetal activity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1934; 48: 1050–57.Google Scholar
57Sontag, LW, Wallace, RF. The movement response of the human fetus to sound stimuli. Child Dev 1935; 6: 253–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
58Sontag, LW, Wallace, RF. Changes in the rate of the human fetal heart in response to vibratory stimuli. Am J Dis Child 1936; 51: 583–89.Google Scholar
59Divon, MY, Platt, LD, Cantrell, CJ, Smith, CV, Yeh Sze, YA, Paul, RH. Evoked fetal startle response: a possible intrauterine neurological examination. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 153: 454–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
60Tanaka, Y, Arayama, T. Fetal responses to acoustic stimuli. Pract Oto-Rhino-Laryng 1969; 31: 269–73.Google ScholarPubMed
61Birnholz, JC, Benacerraf, BR. The development of human fetal hearing. Science 1983; 222: 516–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62Gagnon, R, Hunse, C, Carmichael, L, Fellows, F, Patrick, J. Human fetal responses to vibratory acoustic stimulation from twenty-six weeks to term. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 157: 1375–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
63Gagnon, R, Hunse, C, Carmichael, L, Fellows, F, Patrick, J. Fetal heart rate and fetal activity patterns after vibratory acoustic stimulation at third to thirty-two weeks’ Gestational age. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 158: 7579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
64Gagnon, R, Hunse, C, Patrick, J. Fetal response to vibratory acoustic stimulation: influence of basel heart rate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 159: 835–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
65Gagnon, R, Patrick, J, Foreman, J, West, R. Stimulation of human fetus with sound and vibration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155: 848–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
66Lecanuet, JP, Granier-Deferre, C, Busnel, M. Fetal cardiac and motor responses to octave-band noises as a function of central frequency, intensity and heart rate variability. Early Hum Dev 1988; 18: 8193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
67Lecanuet, JP, Granier-Deferre, C, Jacquet, AY, Busnel, MC. Decelerative cardiac responsiveness to acoustical stimulation in the near term fetus. Q J Exp Psychol 1992; 44B: 279303.Google Scholar
68Shahidullah, S, Hepper, PG. The developmental origins of fetal responsiveness to an acoustic stimulus. J Reprod Infant Psychol 1993; 11: 135–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
69Bernard, J, Sontag, LW. Fetal reactivity to tonal stimulation: a preliminary report. J Genet Psychol 1947; 70: 205–10.Google ScholarPubMed
70Dwornicka, B, Jasienska, W, Smolarz, W, Zabrze, W. Attempt of determining the fetal reaction to acoustic stimulation. Acta Oto-laryngol 1964; 57: 570–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
71Grimwade, JC, Walker, DW, Bartlett, M, Gordon, S, Wood, C. Human fetal heart rate change and movement in response to sound and vibration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1971; 109: 8690.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
72Smyth, CN, Bench, RJ. Fetal response to audiogenic stimulation as an indication of neurologic function. Dig 7th Int Conf Med Biol Eng 1967; 7: 139.Google Scholar
73Bench, J, Vass, A. Fetal audiometry. Lancet 1970; i: 9192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
74Nijhuis, JG, Prechtl, HFR, Martin, CB, Bots, RSGM. Are there behavioural states in the human fetus? Early Hum Dev 1982; 6: 177–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
75Trudinger, BJ, Boylan, P. Antepartum fetal heart rate monitoring: value of sound stimulation. Obstet Gynecol 1980; 55: 265–68.Google ScholarPubMed
76Eggermont, JJ, Salamy, A. Maturational time course for the ABR in preterm and fullterm infants. Hear Res 1988; 33: 3548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
77Uziel, T, Marot, M, Germain, M. Les potentiels évoqués du nerf auditif et du tronc cérébral chez nouveau-né. Rev Laryngol d’Otol Rhinol 1980; 101: 5571.Google Scholar
78Madison, LS, Adubato, SA, Madison, JK, Nelson, RM, Anderson, JC, Erickson, J et al. Fetal response decrement; true habituation? Dev Behav Pediat 1986; 7: 1420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
79Johansson, B, Wedenberg, E, Westin, B. Measurement of tone response by the human fetus. Acta Oto-laryngol 1964; 57: 188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
80Hepper, PG, Shahidullah, S. The development of fetal hearing. Arch Dis Child: in press.Google Scholar
81Rutherford, W. A new theory of hearing. J Anat Physiol 1886; 21: 166–68.Google Scholar
82von Békésy, G. Experiments in hearing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.Google Scholar
83Rose, JE, Brugge, JF, Anderson, DJ, Hind, JE. Phase locked response to low frequency tones in single auditory nerve fibres of the squirrel monkey. J Neuro physiol 1967; 30: 769–93.Google Scholar
84Wever, EG. Theory of hearing. New York: Wiley, 1949.Google Scholar
85Kisilevsky, BS, Muir, DW, Low, JA. Human fetal responses to sound as a function of stimulus intensity. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 73: 971–76.Google ScholarPubMed
86Yao, QM, Jakobsson, J, Nyman, M, Rabeus, H, Till, O, Westgren, M. Fetal responses to different intensity levels of vibroacoustic stimulation. Obstet Gynecol 1990; 75: 206209.Google ScholarPubMed
87Buser, P, Lmbert, M. Audition. London: MIT, 1992.Google Scholar
88Lecanuet, JP, Granier-Deferre, C, Jacquet, AY, Capponi, I, Ledru, L. Prenatal discrimination of a male and female voice uttering the same sentence. Ear Dev Parent 1993; 2: 217–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
89Shahidullah, S, Hepper, PG. Frequency discrimination by the fetus. Early Hum Dev 1994; 36: 1326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
90Dallos, P, Corey, ME. The role of outer hair cell motility in cochlear tuning. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1991; 1: 215–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
91Ohel, G, Simon, A, Linder, M, Mor-Yosef, S. Anencephaly and the nature of fetal response to vibroacoustic stimulation. Am J Perinatol 1986; 3: 344–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
92Park, MI, Kim, DS. The acoustic stimulation test in the anencephalus: preliminary results. J Perinat Med 1989; 17: 329–31.Google ScholarPubMed
93Shahidullah, S, Hepper, PG. Prenatal hearing tests? J Reprod Infant Psychol 1992; 11: 143–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
94Wedenberg, E. Prenatal tests of hearing. Acta Oto-laryngol 1965; 206: 2732.Google Scholar
95Granier-Deferre, C, Lecanuet, JP, Cohen, H, Busnel, MC. Feasibility of prenatal hearing test. Acta Otolaryngol 1985; 421: 93101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
96Haggard, MP. Hearing screening in children - state of the art(s). Arch Dis Child 1990; 65: 1193–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
97Read, JA, Miller, FC. Fetal heart rate acceleration in response to acoustic stimulation as a measure of fetal well-being. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1974; 129: 513–17.Google Scholar
98Arulkumaran, S, Anandakumar, C, Wong, YC, Ratnam, SS. Evaluation of maternal perception of sound-provoked fetal movement as a test of antenatal fetal health. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 73: 182–86.Google ScholarPubMed
99Bennett, MJ. The assessment of fetal well-being. In: Bennett, MJ ed, Ultrasound in perinatal care. London: Wiley, 1984; 116–27.Google Scholar
100Chutiwongse, S, Sukcharoen, N, Snidvongs, W, Tannirandorn, Y, Witoonpanich, P, Phaosavasdi, S. Maternal perception of sound provoked fetal movement as a test of antepartum fetal wellbeing. J Med Assoc Thai 1991; 74: 256–63.Google ScholarPubMed
101Davey, DA, Dommisse, J, Macnab, M, Dacre, D. The value of an auditory stimulatory test in antenatal fetal cardiotocography. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1984; 18: 273–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
102Goldkrand, JW, Farkouh, L. Vibroacoustic stimulation and fetal hiccoughs. J Perinatol 1991; 11: 326–29.Google ScholarPubMed
103Jenson, OH. Fetal heart rate response to a controlled sound stimulus as measure of fetal well-being. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1984; 63: 97101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
104Newnham, JP, Burns, S, Roberman, B. Effect of vibratory acoustic stimulation on the duration of fetal heart rate monitoring tests. Am J Perinatol 1990; 7: 232–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
105Paine, L, Johnson, TRB, Alexander, GR. Auscultated fetal heart rate accelerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 159: 1163–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
106Romero, R, Mazor, M, Hobbins, JC. A critical appraisal of fetal acoustic stimulation as an antenatal test for fetal well-being. Obstet Gynecol 1988; 71: 781–86.Google ScholarPubMed
107Sarno, AP, Bruner, JP. Fetal acoustic stimulation as a possible adjunct to diagnostic obstetric ultrasound: a preliminary report. Obstet Gynecol 1990; 76: 668–70.Google ScholarPubMed
108Sleutel, MR. Vibroacoustic stimulation and fetal heart rate in nonstress tests. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 1990; 19: 199204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
109Smith, CV, Phelan, JP, Platt, LD, Broussard, P, Paul, RH. Fetal acoustic stimulation testing. II. A randomized clinical comparison with the nonstress test. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155: 131–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
110Westgren, M, Almstrom, H, Nyman, M, Ulmsten, U. Maternal perception of sound-provoked fetal movements as a measure of fetal well-being. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987; 94: 523–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
111Zimmer, EZ, Divon, MY. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation. Obstet Gynecol 1993; 81: 451–57.Google ScholarPubMed
112Smith, CV, Nguyen, HN, Phelan, JP. Intrapartum assessment of fetal well-being: a comparison of fetal stimulation with acid base determination. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 155: 726–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
113Devoe, LD, Murray, C, Faircloth, D, Ramos, E. Vibroacoustic stimulation and fetal behavioural state in normal term human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 163: 1156–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
114Thomas, RL, Johnson, TRB, Besinger, RE, Rafkin, D, Treanor, C, Strobino, D. Preterm and term fetal cardiac movement responses to vibratory acoustic stimulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989; 161: 141–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
115Visser, GHA, Mulder, HH, Wit, HP, Mulder, EJH, Prechtl, HFR. Vibroacoustic stimulation of the human fetus: effect on behavioural state organisation. Early Hum Dev 1989; 19: 285–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
116Visser, GHA, Mulder, EJH. The effect of vibro-acoustic stimulation on fetal behavioural state organization. Am J Indust Med 1993; 23: 531–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
117Arulkumaran, S, Skurr, B, Tong, H, Kek, LP, Yeoh, KH, Ratnam, SS. No evidence of hearing loss due to fetal acoustic stimulation test. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78: 283–85.Google ScholarPubMed
118Ohel, G, Horowitz, E, Linder, N, Sohmer, H. Neonatal auditory acuity following in utero vibratory acoustic stimulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 157: 440–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
119Nyman, M, Barr, M, Westgren, M. A four-year followup up of hearing and development in children exposed in utero to vibroacoustic stimulation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1992; 99: 685–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The development of fetal hearing
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The development of fetal hearing
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The development of fetal hearing
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *