Since the 1950s, sexual surgical reassignments have been frequently carried out. As this surgical therapeutic procedure is controversial, it seems important to explore the actual consequences of such an intervention and objectively evaluate its relevance. In this context, we have carried out a review of the literature. After looking at the methodological limitations of follow-up studies, the psychological, sexual, social, and professional futures of the individuals subject to a transsexual operation are presented. Finally, prognostic aspects are considered. In the literature, follow-up studies tend to show that surgical transformations have positive consequences for the subjects. In the majority of cases, transsexuals are very satisfied with their intervention and any difficulties experienced are often temporary and disappear within a year after the surgical transformation. Studies show that there is less than 1% of regrets, and a little more than 1% of suicides among operated subjects. The empirical research does not confirm the opinion that suicide is strongly associated with surgical transformation.