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Association between appearance schemas and personality traits

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 August 2021

B. Maia*
Affiliation:
Faculty Of Philosophy And Social Sciences, Centre For Philosophical And Humanistic Studies, Portugal, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Braga, Portugal
M. Marques
Affiliation:
Coimbra Hospital And University Centre, Portugal, Coimbra Hospital and University Centre, Coimbra, Portugal Institute Of Psychological Medicine, Faculty Of Medicine, University of Coimbra, coimbra, Portugal
F. Carvalho
Affiliation:
Institute Of Psychological Medicine, Faculty Of Medicine, University of Coimbra, coimbra, Portugal Espaço Psicológico – Consultório De Psicologia, Coimbra, Portugal
*
*Corresponding author.

Abstract

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Introduction

Personality traits play are related to many forms of psychological distress, such as body dissatisfaction.

Objectives

To explore the associations between appearance schemas and personality traits.

Methods

494 university students (80.2% females; 99.2% single), with a mean age of 20.17 years old (SD=1.77; range:18-20), filled in the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, the NEO-Personality Inventory, and the Composite Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale.

Results

A significant difference was found in Self-evaluation Salience scores by sex [females (M=37.99,SD=7.82); males (M=35.36,SD=6.60);t(489)=-3.052,p=.002]. Having conducted correlations separately, by sex, Self-Evaluation Salience was correlated with Concern Over Mistakes (r=.27), Doubts about Actions (r=.35), and Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism (r=.23). For females, Self-evaluation Salience was correlated with Concern Over Mistakes (r=.34), Personal Standards (r=.25), Doubts about Actions (r=.33), Parental Expectations (r=.24), Parental Criticism (r=.24), Organization (r=.11), Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism (r=.31), Self-Oriented Perfectionism (r=.32), and Neuroticism (r=.33). Concerning Motivational Salience, in the total sample (not separately, by sex), this scale/dimension significantly correlated with Conscientiousness (r=. 18), Personal Standards (r=.23), Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism (r=. 10), and Self-Oriented Perfectionism (r=.29).

Conclusions

Females seem to value more their self-appearance and, in females, the salience of appearance in life seems to be associated with maladaptive-perfectionism, as well as with adaptive-perfectionism. In males, the salience of appearance was only related with adaptive perfectionism. Males seem more concerned with their own standards, while for females other´s standards are also relevant. In females the level of salience of appearance in life seems to relate to the experience of feelings, such as anxiety/depression (neuroticism). The motivation to improve appearance seemed to be particularly related, in both sex, to adaptive perfectionism.

Disclosure

No significant relationships.

Type
Abstract
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the European Psychiatric Association
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