Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-z5d2w Total loading time: 0.354 Render date: 2021-11-28T21:54:54.261Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Addiction and schizophrenia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2020

P. Batel*
Unité de Traitement Ambulatoire des Malades Alcooliques, Hôpital Beaujon, 100, Boulevard du Général Leclerc, 92110Clichy, France
Get access


Epidemiologic studies in the general population and those based on the clinical assessment of schizophrenic populations have revealed a high degree of overlap between schizophrenia and addictive disorders. The abuse of psychoactive substances (including alcohol) throughout life is so frequent (50%) that the possibility of a specific link inevitably arises. Various hypotheses have been suggested to explain the high co-morbidity between schizophrenia and addiction: 1) The social-environmental hypothesis has been developed but studies have provided poor evidence to validate it. 2) The possible shared biological vulnerability between schizophrenia and addictions led researchers to explore common genetic determinants and study the involvement of the dopaminergic and opioid systems in the aetiology of both schizophrenia and the abuse of and dependence on psychoactive drugs. 3) Finally, the theory of self-medication suggests that schizophrenics may be attempting to counter the deficit linked to their disorders by using the substances they take or their dependency-type behaviour to cope with their emotional problems. The clinical profile of schizophrenic addicts does seem to display some distinctive features, such as the high level of depressive co-morbidity, very high nicotine and alcohol dependence, with a very poor prognosis. These patients are difficult to manage; the possibility of pharmacologic interactions between the substances they are taking and neuroleptic medication calls for prudence, and their compliance is also poor. Addictive disorders in schizophrenics are currently a topic of active research intended to lead to identifying specific treatments. The early identification of addictive disorders in schizophrenics should make it possible to limit their development and improve the prognosis.

Original Article
Copyright © Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS 2000

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Regier, DFarmer, MRae, DLocke, BKeith, SJudd, LComorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the epidemiologic catchment area (ECA) study. JAMA 264 1990 2511–251810.1001/jama.1990.03450190043026CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Helzer, J.DPryzbeck, T.RThe co-occurence of alcoholism with other psychiatric disorders in the general population and its impact on treatment. J Stud Alcohol 49 1988 219–22410.15288/jsa.1988.49.219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chong, S.AChoo, H.LSmoking among Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 30 1996 350–353CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dalack, G.WHealy, D.JMeador-Woodruff, J.HNicotine dependence in schizophrenia: clinical phenomena and laboratory findings. Am J Psychiatry 155 1998 1490–1501CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diwan, ACastine, MPomerleau, C.SMeador-Woodruff, J.HDalack, G.WDifferential prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenic vs mood disorders. Schizophr Res 33 1998 113–11810.1016/S0920-9964(98)00045-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Forchuk, CNorman, RMalla, AVos, SMartin, M.LSmoking and schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 4 1997 355–35910.1046/j.1365-2850.1997.00056.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glynn, S.HSussman, SWhy schizophrenic patients smoke [letter]. Hosp Community Psychiatry 41 1990 1027Google ScholarPubMed
Goff, D.CHenderson, D.CAmico, ECigarette smoking in schizophrenia: relationship to psychopathology and medication side effects. Am J Psychiatry 149 1992 1189–1193Google ScholarPubMed
Jones, P.BRantakallio, PHartikainen, A.LIsohanni, MSipila, PSchizophrenia as a long-term outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and perinatal complications: a 28-year follow-up of the1966 north Finland general population birth cohort. Am J Psychiatry 155 1998 355–36410.1176/ajp.155.3.355CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeLeon, JSmoking and vulnerability for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 22 1996 405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leduc, PMittleman, GSchizophrenia and psychostimulant abuse: a review and re-analysis of clinical evidence. Psychopharmacology 121 1995 407–42710.1007/BF02246489CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirchner, J.EOwen, R.RNordquist, CFischer, E.PDiagnosis and management of substance use disorders among inpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv 49 1998 82–85CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossenthal, RMiner, CDifferentiel diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis and schizophrenia in patient with substance use disorders. Schizophr Bull 23 1997 187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drake, R.EOsher, F.CNoordsy, D.LHurlbut, S.CTeague, G.BBeaudett, M.SDiagnosis of alcohol use disorders in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 16 1990 57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zanis, D.AMcLellan, A.TCorse, SIs the Addiction Severity Index a reliable and valid assessment instrument among clients with severe and persistent mental illness and substance abuse disorders? Community Ment Health J 33 1997 213–227CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association Diagnosis and statistical manual of mental disorders. Third ed, rev 1986 APA Press WashingtonGoogle Scholar
Barbee, J.GClark, P.DCrapanzano, M.SHeintz, G.CKeho, C.EAlcohol and substance abuse among schizophrenic patients representing to an emergency psychiatric service. J Nerv Ment Dis 177 1989 400–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batel, PLejoyeux, MAdès, JStudy of alcoholism among schizophrenics.G, D18th Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum Congress 1992 Nice: Raven Press 118BGoogle Scholar
Chouljian, T.LShumway, MBalancio, EDwyer, E.VSurber, RJacobs, MSubstance use among schizophrenic outpatients : prevalence, course, and relation to functional status. Ann Clin Psychiatry 7 1995 19–24CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clare, A.WAlcoholism and schizophrenia in Irishmen in London. A reassessment. Br J Addict 69 1974 207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuffel, B.JPrevalence estimates of substance abuse in schizophrenia and their correlates. J Nerv Ment Dis 180 1992 589–59210.1097/00005053-199209000-00008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kesselman, M.SSolomon, JBeaudett, MThorthon, BAlcoholism and schizophrenia.Solomon, JAlcoholism and clinical psychiatry. 1982 New York: Plenum Press 69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soyka, MAddiction and Schizophrenia. 1. Alcoholism and schizophrenia. Fortschr Neurol Psychiat 62 1994 71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adler, L.EOlincy, AWaldo, MHarris, J.GGriffith, JStevens, KSchizophrenia, sensory gating, and nicotinic receptors. Schizophr Bull 24 1998 189–20210.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033320CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glassman, A.HCigarette smoking: implications for psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry 150 1993 546–553Google ScholarPubMed
Lohr, J.BFlynn, KSmoking and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 8 1992 93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunette, M.FDrake, R.EGender differences in patients with schizophrenia and substance abuse. Compr Psychiatry 38 1997 109–116CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arndt, STyrrel, GFlaum, MAndreasen, NComorbidity of substance abuse and schizophrenia: the role of pre-morbid adjustment. Psychol M 22 1992 379–388CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brady, KAnton, RBallenger, JLydiard, RAdinoff, BSelanger, JCocaine abuse among schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 147 1990 1164–1167Google ScholarPubMed
Lysaker, PBell, MBeam-Goulet, JMilstein, RRelationship of positive and negative symptoms to cocaine abuse in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 182 1994 109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mueser, K.TVarnold, P.RLevinson, D.FSingh, HBellack, A.SKee, KPrevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia: demographic and clinical correlates. Schizophr Bull 16 1990 31–56CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shaner, AKhalsa, MRoberts, LWilkins, JAnglin, DHsieh, SUnrecognized cocaine use among schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 150 1993 758–762Google ScholarPubMed
Stone, AGreenstein, RGamble, GMcLellan, ACocaine use by schizophrenic outpatients who receive depot neuroleptic medication. Hosp Community Psychiatry 44 1993 176–177Google ScholarPubMed
Yesavage, JZarcone, VHistory of drug abuse and dangerous behavior in inpatient schizophrenics. J Clin Psychistry 44 1983 259–261Google ScholarPubMed
Goldstein, MDeutch, A.YDopaminergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. FASEB J 6 1992 2413–2421CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, S.SHyde, T.MWeinberger, D.RNeurobiology of schizophrenia. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 6 1993 86–92Google ScholarPubMed
Volavka, JDavis, L.GEhrlich, H.YEndorphins, dopamine, and schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 5 1979 227–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmauss, CEmrich, H.MDopamine and the action of opiates: a reevaluation of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. With special consideration of the role of endogenous opioids in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 20 1985 1211–123110.1016/0006-3223(85)90179-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heinz, ASchmidt, L.GReischies, F.MAnhedonia in schizophrenic, depressed, or alcohol-dependent patients: Neurobiological correlates. Pharmacopsychiatry 27 Suppl 1994 7–10CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rimmer, JJacobsen, BAlcoholism in schizophrenics and their relatives. J Stud Alcohol 38 1977 1781–178410.15288/jsa.1977.38.1781CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K.STsuang, M.TOutcome and familial psychopathology in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45 1988 338–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noordsy, D.LDrake, R.EBiesanz, J.CMcHugo, G.JFamily history of alcoholism in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 182 1994 651–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gejman, P.VRam, AGelenter, JFriedman, ECao, QPickar, DNo structural mutation in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene in alcoholism or schizophrenia. Analysis using denaturing gradiant gel electrophoresis. JAMA 271 1994 204–208CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krebs, M.OSautel, FBourdel, M.CSokoloff, PSchwartz, J.COlie, J.PDopamine D3 receptor gene variants and substance abuse in schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 3 1998 337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krausz, MMass, RHaasen, CGross, JPsychopathology in patients with schizophrenia and substance abuse: a comparative clinical study. Psychopathology 29 1996 95–103CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jeste, D.VGladsjo, J.ALindamer, L.ALacro, J.PMedical comorbidity in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 22 1996 413–43010.1093/schbul/22.3.413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, R.RFischer, E.PBooth, B.MCuffel, B.JMedication noncompliance and substance abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv 47 1996 853–858Google ScholarPubMed
Wilkins, J.NPharmacotherapy of schizophrenia patients with comorbid substance abuse. Schizophr Bull 23 1997 215–228CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Addington, JDuchak, VReasons for substance use in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 96 1997 329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixon, LHass, G.HWeiden, P.JSweeney, JFrances, A.JDrug abuse in schizophrenic patients: clinical correlates and reasons for use. Am J Psychiatry 148 1991 224–230Google ScholarPubMed
Pristach, C.ASmith, C.MSelf-reported effects of alcohol use on symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv 47 1996 421–423Google ScholarPubMed
Noordsy, D.LDrake, R.ETeague, G.BOsher, F.CHurlbut, S.CBeaudett, M.SSubjective experiences related to alcohol use among schizophrenics. J Nerv Ment Dis 179 1991 410–41410.1097/00005053-199107000-00004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newhouse, P.AHughes, J.RThe role of nicotine and nicotinic mechanisms in neuropsychiatric disease. Br J Addict 86 1991 521–526CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alpert, MSilvers, K.NPerceptual characteristics distinguishing auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and acute alcoholic psychoses. Am J Psychiatry 127 1970 298–302CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Negrete, JKnapp, WDouglas, DSmith, WCannabis affects the severity of schizophrenic symptoms: results of a clinical survey. Psyhol M 16 1986 515–520CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knudsen, PVilmar, TCannabis and neuroleptic agents in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 69 1984 162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lysaker, P.HBell, M.DBioty, S.MZito, W.SCognitive impairment and substance abuse history as predictors of the temporal stability of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 185 1997 21–2610.1097/00005053-199701000-00004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serper, MAlpert, MRichardson, NDickson, SAllen, MWerner, AClinical effects of recent cocaine use on patients with acute schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 152 1995 1464–1469Google ScholarPubMed
Baigent, MHolme, GHafner, JSelf reports of the interaction between substance abuse and schizophrenia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 29 1995 69–7410.3109/00048679509075894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mueser, K.TNishith, PTracy, J.IDegirolamo, JMolinaro, MExpectations and motives for substance use in schizophrenai. Schizophr Bull 21 1995 367–37810.1093/schbul/21.3.367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, G.LSchizophrenia, smoking, and boredom [letter]. Am J Psychiatry 153 1996 583–584Google ScholarPubMed
Brunette, M.FMueser, K.TXie, HDrake, R.ERelationships between symptoms of schizophrenia and substance abuse. J Nerv Ment Dis 185 1997 13–20CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckley, P.FNovel antipsychotic medications and the treatment of comorbid substance abuse in schizophrenia. J Subst Abuse Treat 15 1998 113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pristach, CSmith, CMedication compliance and substance abuse among schizophrenic patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry 41 1990 1345–1348Google ScholarPubMed
Salokangas, R.KSaarijarvi, STaiminen, TLehto, HNiemi, HAhola, VEffect of smoking on neuroleptics in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 23 1997 55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, L.GMaxwell, SBrandabur, M.MSubstance abuse as a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia: a retrospective analysis of 1, 027 patients. Psychopharmacol Bull 33 1997 177–181Google ScholarPubMed
Buckley, P.FNew antipsychotic agents: emerging clinical profiles. J Clin Psychiatry 60 Suppl 1 1999 12–17 discussion 28-30Google ScholarPubMed
Casey, D.EEffects of clozapine therapy in schizophrenic individuals at risk for tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychiatry 59 Suppl 3 1998 31–37Google ScholarPubMed
Conley, R.RKelly, D.LGale, E.AOlanzapine response in treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients with a history of substance abuse. Schizophr Res 33 1998 95–101CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dixon, LWeiden, P.JHaas, GSweeney, JFrances, A.JIncreased tardive dyskinesia in alcohol-abusing schizophrenic patients. Compr Psychiatry 33 1992 121–122CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duke, P.JPantelis, CBarnes, T.R.ESouth Westminster schizophrenia survey – Alcohol use and its relationship to symptoms, tardive dyskinesia and illness onset. Br J Psychiatry 164 1994 630–636CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olivera, AKiefer, MManley, NTardive dyskinesia in psychiatric patients with substance abuse disorders. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 16 1990 57–66Google Scholar
Blanchard, J.JSquires, DHenry, THoran, W.PBogenschutz, MLauriello, JExamining an affect regulation model of substance abuse in schizophrenia. The role of traits and coping. J Nerv Ment Dis 187 1999 72–79CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Addington, JAddington, DEffect of substance misuse in early psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 172 Suppl 1998 134–136CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hambrecht, MHafner, HSubstance abuse and the onset of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 40 1996 1155–1163CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hambrecht, MHafner, HSensitivity and specificity of relatives'reports on the early course of schizophrenia. Psychopathology 30 1997 12–19CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasch, K.LKlein, D.NThe relationship between age at onset and comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 184 1996 703–707CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mason, PHarrison, GGlazebrook, CMedley, ICroudace, TThe course of schizophrenia over 13 years. A report from the International Study on Schizophrenia (ISoS) coordinated by the World Health Organization. Br J Psychiatry 169 1996 580–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mueser, K.TDrake, R.EAckerson, T.HAlterman, A.IMiles, K.MNoordsy, D.LAntisocial personality disorder, conduct disorder, and substance abuse in schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol 106 1997 473–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
North, C.SPollio, D.ESmith, E.MSpitznagel, E.LCorrelates of early onset and chronicity of homelessness in a large urban homeless population. J Nerv Ment Dis 186 1998 393–40010.1097/00005053-199807000-00002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabinowitz, JBromet, E.JLavelle, JCarlson, GKovasznay, BSchwartz, J.EPrevalence and severity of substance use disorders and onset of psychosis in first-admission psychotic patients. Psychol M 28 1998 1411–1419CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sevy, SKay, SOpler, LPraag, HSignificance of cocaine history in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 178 1990 642–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seibyl, JSatel, SAnthony, DSouthwick, SKrystal, JCharney, DEffects of cocaine on hospital course in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 181 1993 31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swofford, C.DKasckow, J.WScheller-Gilkey, GInderbitzin, L.BSubstance use: a powerful predictor of relapse in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 20 1996 145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alterman, A.IErdlen, F.RMcLellan, A.TProblem drinking in hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Addict Behav 5 1980 273–27610.1016/0306-4603(80)90050-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brady, K.TKilleen, TJarrell, PDepression in alcoholic schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 150 1993 1255–1256Google ScholarPubMed
Batel, PLejoyeux, MAdès, JPrevalence and severity of alcoholism among schizophrenics: a clinical study.In: 4th ESBRA Congress;1993 1993 Santa Margherita Ligure (Genova), Italy: Pergamon Press 242Google Scholar
Soyka, MAlbus, MKathmann, NFinelli, AHofstetter, SHolzbach, RPrevalence of alcohol and drug abuse in schizophrenic inpatients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 242 1993 362–372CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kozaric-Kozaric, DFolnegovic-Smalc, VFolnegovic, ZMaruic, AInfluence of alcoholism on the pronosis of schizophrenic patients. J Stud Alcohol 56 1995 622–62710.15288/jsa.1995.56.622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osher, FDracke, RNoordsy, DTeague, GCorrelates and outcomes of alcohol use disorder among rural outpatients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 55 1994 109–113Google ScholarPubMed
Heila, HIsometsa, E.THenriksson, M.MHeikkinen, M.EMarttunen, M.JLonnqvist, J.KSuicide and schizophrenia: a nationwide psychological autopsy study on age- and sex-specific clinical characteristics of 92 suicide victims with schizophrenia [comments]. Am J Psychiatry 154 1997 1235–1242Google Scholar
VanAmmers, E.CSellman, J.DMulder, R.TTemperament and substance abuse in schizophrenia: is there a relationship? J Nerv Ment Dis 185 1997 283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, I.LCarr, V.JCarter, N.TLewin, T.JPatterns of current and lifetime substance use in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 24 1998 443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blum, AThe possible role of tobacco cigarette smoking in hyponatremia in schizophrenic inpatients. JAMA 252 1984 2864–2865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalack, G.WMeador-Woodruff, J.HSmoking, smoking withdrawal and schizophrenia: case reports and a review of the literature. Schizophr Res 22 1996 133–14110.1016/S0920-9964(96)80441-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gopalaswany, A.KMorgan, RSmoking in chronic schizophrenic. Br J Psychiatry 149 1986 52310.1192/S0007125000139856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masterson, EO'Shea, BSmoking and malignancy in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 145 1984 429–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Witteman, J.C.MGrobbee, D.EValkenburg, H.AVanhemert, A.MStijnen, THofman, ACigarette smoking and the development and progression of aortic atherosclerosis – A 9-year population-based follow-up study in women. Circulation 88 1993 2156–2162CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamera, ESchneider, J.KDeviney, SAlcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and caffeine use and symptom distress in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 183 1995 559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsuang, J.WHo, A.PEckman, T.AShaner, ADual diagnosis treatment for patients with schizophrenia who are substance dependent. Psychiatr Serv 48 1997 887–889Google ScholarPubMed
American Pyschiatric Association Guideline for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. Alcohol, cocaine, opioids. Am J Psychiatry 152 Suppl 1995 1–5910.1176/ajp.152.11.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miner, C.RRosenthal, R.NHellerstein, D.JMuenz, L.RPrediction of compliance with outpatient referral in patients with schizophrenia and psychoactive substance use disorders [comments]. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54 1997 706–712CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haywood, TKravitz, HGrossman, LCavanaugh, J.JDavis, JLewis, DPredicting the ‘revolving door’ phenomenon among patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective, and affective disorders [comments]. Am J Psychiatry 152 1995 856–861Google Scholar
Hansell, STreatment of comorbid schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders. New Dir Ment Health Serv 73 1997 65–7310.1002/yd.23319977308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fenton, W.SBlyler, C.RHeinssen, R.KDeterminants of medication compliance in schizophrenia: empirical and clinical findings. Schizophr Bull 23 1997 637–651CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gupta, SHendricks, SKenkel, A.MBhatia, S.CHaffke, E.ARelapse in schizophrenia: is there a relationship to substance abuse? Schizoph Res 20 1996 153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mc Phillips, M.AKelly, F.JBarnes, T.RDuke, P.JGene-Cos, NClark, KDetecting comorbid substance misuse among people with schizophrenia in the community: a study comparing the results of questionnaires with analysis of hair and urine. Schizophr Res 25 1997 141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ziedonis, D.MGeorge, T.PSchizophrenia and nicotine use: report of a pilot smoking cessation program and review of neurobiological and clinical issues. Schizophr Bull 23 1997 247–254CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galanter, MEgelko, SEdwards, HKatz, SCan cocaine addicts with severe mental illness be treated along with singly diagnosed addicts? Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 22 1996 497–507CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kovasznay, BFleischer, JTanenberg-Karant, MJandorf, LMiller, A.DBromet, ESubstance use disorder and the early course of illness in schizophrenia and affective psychosis. Schizophr Bull 23 1997 195–20110.1093/schbul/23.2.195CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Voruganti, L.NHeslegrave, R.JAwad, A.GNeuroleptic dysphoria may be the missing link between schizophrenia and substance abuse. J Nerv Ment Dis 185 1997 463–465CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckley, P.FSubstance abuse in schizophrenia: a review. J Clin Psychiatry 59 Suppl 3 1998 26–30Google ScholarPubMed
Glazer, W.MOlanzapine and the new generation of antipsychotic agents: patterns of use. J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 10 1997 18–21Google ScholarPubMed
Walters, V.LTognolini, R.ZRueda, H.MRueda, R.MTorres, R.GNew strategies for old problems: tardive dyskinesia (TD). Review and report on severe TD cases treated with clozapine, with 12, 8 and 5 years of video follow-up. Schizophr Res 28 1997 231–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freedman, Linkage of a neurophysiological deficit in schizophrenia to a chromosone 15 locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94 1997 587–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Submit a response


No Comments have been published for this article.
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Addiction and schizophrenia
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Addiction and schizophrenia
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Addiction and schizophrenia
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *