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Nivel de la carga del cuidador entre los familiares del enfermo mental en el sur de Verona

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 May 2020

C. Samele
Affiliation:
Sección de Psiquiatría General, Departamento de Medicina Psicológica, Instituto de Psiquiatría, De Crespigny Park, Londres SE58AF, Reino Unido;
N. Manning
Affiliation:
Escuela de Estudios Sociales, Universidad de Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD Reino Unido.
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Resumen

Identificar la carga de los cuidados sobre los familiares del enfermo mental es una parte integral de la investigación en los servicios psiquiátricos comunitarios. El presente estudio tenía el propósito de evaluar el nivel y el alcance de la carga sobre los familiares en el sur de Verona (noreste de Italia). El área de captación del sur de Verona proporciona un servicio psiquiátrico comunitario amplio con dependencia mínima del hospital. Se seleccionó a los pacientes a partir del Registro de Casos Psiquiátricos del sur de Verona y se entrevistó a 40 de sus familiares utilizando evaluaciones estructuradas que medían la caiga objetiva, el comportamiento del paciente, las estrategias de afrontamiento, la satisfacción y las necesidades de servicios. Se pusieron de manifiesto tanto los aspectos positivos como negativos de la caiga: el 92% de los familiares continuaban manteniendo contacto con amigos o familiares, el 72% no habían experimentado cambios en sus ingresos familiares y el 52% podían resolver cualquier perturbación en la casa durante una crisis. Los efectos negativos principales para los familiares incluían una reducción de las actividades de ocio (57%) y problemas psicológicos (67%). La carga mayor se ejercía sobre los familiares de los pacientes varones (P = 0,016), sin empleo (P = 0,013) y diagnosticados con psicosis (P = 0,041). Se comentan las implicaciones del empleo para los pacientes y su asociación con niveles inferiores de caiga del cuidador.

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