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Examen de la tipología del alcoholismo tipo I/tipo II en la población de tratamiento de un hospital griego

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 May 2020

Lefteris Lykourasa
Affiliation:
Primer Departamento de Psiquiatría del Hospital General, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Atenas, Hospital “Attikon”, I, Rimini Street, 12410Atenas, Grecia
George Moussas
Affiliation:
Unidad de Rehabilitación de Pacientes Alcohólicos, Hospital Psiuiátrico de Atica, Atenas, Grecia
Alexander Botsis
Affiliation:
Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Salud Mental, Atenas, Grecia
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Resumen

Objetivo.

El estudio pretende examinar la validez de dos tipos de clasificación del alcoholismo masculino en una muestra de tratamiento de un hospital griego.

Método.

La población de estudio se extrajo de los pacientes varones con dependencia de alcohol ingresados en la Unidad de Tratamiento del Alcohol del Hospital Psiquiátrico de Atica. La muestra del estudio constaba de 73 pacientes después de la exclusión de los sujetos con dependencia de alcohol que sufrían de una enfermedad médica comórbida grave, trastorno esquizofrénico, trastorno bipolar, dependencia o abuso de drogas, trastorno mental orgánico o que eran analfabetos. Se agrupó a los alcohólicos en tipo I y tipo II adop-tando el criterio de edad de comienzo utilizado por von Knorring y cois. (1985). Se midió la impulsividad, el riesgo de suicidio y el ries-go de violencia por medio de la Escala de Control de los Impulsos (ICS), la Escala de Riesgo de Suicidio (SRS) y la Escala de Sentimientos y Actos de Violencia Anteriores (PFAVS).

Resultados.

Se definió a 50 pacientes con dependencia de alcohol como de comienzo tardío y a 23 como de comienzo temprano. Com-parado con los pacientes de comienzo tardío, los individuos de comienzo temprano con dependencia de alcohol tenían más alcoholismo familiar (P = 0,032); una tasa más alta de ellos estaban solteros (P = 0,001), no tenían empleo estable antes de entrar en la unidad (P = 0,007) y puntuaban más alto en la ICS (P = 0,046) y la SRS (P = 0,024).

Conclusiones.

El presente estudio confirma la dicotomía tipo I/tipo II del alcoholismo masculino y muestra también que la edad de comienzo es un criterio de clasificación válido.

Type
Artículo original
Copyright
Copyright © European Psychiatric Association 2004

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