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Directrices para dejar de fumar: recomendaciones científico-estadísticas de la Agencia Francesa de Seguridad de los Productos Sanitarios

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 May 2020

B. Le Foll
Affiliation:
Sección de Farmacología Preclínica, Rama de Investigación en Neurociencia Conductual, Instituto Nacional sobre Abuso de Drogas, Institutos Nacionales de Salud, Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD21224, EE. UU
P. Melihan-Cheinin
Affiliation:
Dirección General de la Salud, París, Francia
G. Rostoker
Affiliation:
AFSSAPS, Agencia Francesa de Seguridad de los Productos Sanitarios, Saint-Denis, 143/147, boulevard Anatole France, 92285Saint-Denis cedex, Francia
G. Lagrue
Affiliation:
Centro de tabacología, Hospital Albert-Chenevier, Creteil, Francia
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Resumen

El uso de tabaco es la causa evitable principal de muerte en los países desarrollados. Millones de fumadores desean dejarlo, pero pocos pueden hacerlo. Los profesionales clínicos deben utilizar enfoques que hayan demostrado su eficacia ayudando a los pacientes a dejar de fumar. Este artículo resume los principales hallazgos científico-estadísticos y las recomendaciones clínicas para el tratamiento de la dependencia de tabaco de la Agencia Francesa de Seguridad de los Productos Sanitarios (AFSSAPS). Los profesionales clínicos deben preguntar por la categoría de fumador de cada paciente y proporcionar información sobre las consecuencias sanitarias de fumar y los tratamientos eficaces disponibles. Estos tratamientos incluyen el consejo (sobre todo el apoyo individual o social y la terapia conductual y cognitiva) y el tratamiento farmacológico con terapia de sustitución de la nicotina (TSN) o bupropión LP. Los tratamientos farmacológicos se deben utilizar sólo para la dependencia de nicotina probada, evaluada por el Test de Fagerström para Dependencia de la Nicotina. La elección de tratamiento farmacológico depende de la preferencia y la historia del paciente y de la presencia de contraindicaciones. El profesional clínico debe comenzar con un solo agente, pero estos tratamientos se pueden utilizar en combinación. El comportamiento de fumar es un problema crónico que requiere tratamiento a largo plazo y seguimiento. Se debe disponer de acceso a tratamiento intensivo que combine el tratamiento farmacológico y la terapia conductual y cognitiva extensa para los pacientes muy dependientes.

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Revisión
Copyright
Copyright © European Psychiatric Association 2006

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Directrices para dejar de fumar: recomendaciones científico-estadísticas de la Agencia Francesa de Seguridad de los Productos Sanitarios
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