Hostname: page-component-5db6c4db9b-cfm7h Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-25T13:22:12.564Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Russia and the Liberal World Order

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 March 2018


While Russian leaders are clearly dissatisfied with the United States and the European Union, they are not inherently opposed to a liberal world order. The question of Russia's desire to change a liberal international order hangs on the type of liberalism embedded in that order. Despite some calls from within for it to create a new, post-liberal order premised on conservative nationalism and geopolitics, Russia is unlikely to fare well in such a world.

Roundtable: Rising Powers and the International Order
Copyright © Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



1 Andrey Kortunov, “The Inevitable, Weird World,” Russia in Global Affairs No. 4 (October–December 2016),; and Sergei Karaganov, “Global Challenges and Russian Foreign Policy,” Russia in Global Affairs, November 20, 2016,

2 Clunan, Anne L., The Social Construction of Russia's Resurgence (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009)Google Scholar and Clunan, Anne L., “Historical Aspirations and the Domestic Politics of Russia's Pursuit of International Status,” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 47, no. 3–4 (2014), pp. 281–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 Fyodor Lukyanov, “In the Moonlight,” Russia in Global Affairs No. 3 (July–September 2017),

4 Alexander Losev, “Neo-Mercantilism, Neo-Modernism or Neo-Imperialism?” No. 3 (July–September 2017),

5 Ruggie, John Gerard, “Multilateralism,” International Organization 46, no. 3 (1992), pp. 561–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ikenberry, G. John, After Victory (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001)Google Scholar; and Ikenberry, G. John, “The Liberal International Order and Its Discontents,” Millenium 38, no. 3 (2010), pp. 509–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

6 Simpson, Gerry, “Two Liberalisms,” European Journal of International Law 12, no. 3 (2001), pp. 537–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 Ibid., p. 539.

8 Kortunov, “The Inevitable.”

9 Bull, Hedley, The Anarchical Society (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar and Buzan, Barry, From International to World Society? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ruggie, John Gerard, “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change,” International Organization 36, no. 2 (1982), pp. 379415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Ruggie, “Multilateralism.”

10 Strange, Susan, “Cave! Hic Dragones,” International Organization 36, no. 2 (1982), pp. 479–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

11 Simpson, “Two Liberalisms.”

12 Ibid., p. 537.

13 Clunan, Anne L., “Redefining Sovereignty,” in Shawki, Noha and Cox, Michaelene, eds., Negotiating Sovereignty and Human Rights: Actors and Issues in Contemporary Human Rights Politics (Farnham, U.K.: Ashgate Publishing, 2009), pp. 726 Google Scholar.

14 Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, “Resources: Security Council Resolutions Referencing R2P,” January 7, 2016,

15 Blyth, Mark, Great Transformations (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

16 Blyth, Mark, Austerity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013)Google Scholar.

17 Ruggie, “International Regimes”; and Blyth, Great Transformations.

18 Bordo, Michael D. et al. , “Is Globalization Today Really Different than Globalization a Hundred Years Ago?” in Collins, Susan and Lawrence, Robert, eds., Brookings Trade Policy Forum (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1999), pp. 172 Google Scholar.

19 Falk, Richard, “State of Siege,” International Affairs 73, no. 1 (1997), pp. 123–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

20 Clunan, Social Construction; and Trenin, Dmitri, Post-Imperium (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2011)Google Scholar.

21 Tsygankov, Andrei, Russia and the West from Alexander to Putin (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

22 Clunan, Social Construction.

23 Sergei Karaganov, “2016—A Victory of Conservative Realism,” Russia in Global Affairs No. 1 (January–March 2017),–A-Victory-of-Conservative-Realism-18585.

24 Makarychev, Andrey and Morozov, Viatcheslav, “Multilateralism, Multipolarity, and Beyond,” Global Governance 17, no. 3 (2011), pp. 353–73Google Scholar.

25 Sovet po Vneshnei i Oboronnoi Politike, “Strategiia dlia Rossii. Rossiiskaia Vneshnaia Politika: konets 2010x-nachalo 2020x” [Council for Foreign and Defense Policy, “A Strategy for Russia. Russian Foreign Policy: The End of the 2010s–the Beginning of the 2020s”], May 23, 2016,тезисы_23мая_sm.pdf.

26 Karaganov, “Global Challenges.”

27 Makarychev and Morozov, “Multilateralism.”

28 Sergei Karaganov, “How the World Looks from the Russian Perspective,” Russia in Global Affairs, August 1, 2016,

29 Karaganov, “Global Challenges.”

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

32 Ibid.; and Karaganov, “2016—A Victory.”

33 Karaganov, “How the World Looks.”

34 D'Agostino, Anthony, The Rise of Global Powers (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012)Google Scholar.

35 Doyle, Michael W., Ways of War and Peace (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997), pp. 389420 Google Scholar.

36 Karaganov, “2016.”

37 Kortunov, “The Inevitable.”

38 Ibid.

39 Karaganov, “2016.”

40 Ibid.; Losev, “Neo-Mercantilism”; and Kortunov, “The Inevitable.”

41 Larson, Deborah Welch and Shevchenko, Alexei, “Shortcut to Greatness,” International Organization 57, no. 1 (2003), pp. 77109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Clunan, “Historical Aspirations”; Lukyanov, “In the Moonlight”; and Makarychev and Morozov, “Multilateralism.”

42 Losev, “Neo-Mercantilism”; and Chubais, Igor, Ot Russkoi Idei–k Idee Novoi Rossii (Moscow: Izdatel'skii dom “Sotsial'naia zashchita,” 1997)Google Scholar.

43 World Bank, “Russian Federation - Systematic Country Diagnostic: Pathways to Inclusive Growth,” Washington, D.C., 2016,; World Bank, “GDP Ranking 2016” (July 2017),; and World Bank, “World Development Indicators Database” (November 15, 2017),

44 Sil, Rudra, “Which of the BRICS Will Wield the Most Influence in Twenty-Five Years?International Studies Review 16, no. 3 (2014), pp. 456–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

45 Losev, “Neo-Mercantilism.”

46 Strange, Susan, “Wake up, Krasner! The World Has Changed,” Review of International Political Economy 1, no. 2 (1994), pp. 209–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Cerny, Philip G., “Globalization and the Changing Logic of Collective Action,” International Organization 49, no. 4 (1995), pp. 595625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Blyth, Austerity.

47 Anne L. Clunan, “The Great Powers of Small-Scale,” Paper prepared for delivery at the International Studies Association Annual Convention, Toronto, Canada, March 26–29, 2014; and Brooks, Stephen G., Producing Security (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

48 Jude Clemente, “U.S. Set to Rival Russia in Oil and Gas Exports,” Forbes, February 25, 2017; and International Energy Agency, “Key World Energy Statistics 2017,”

49 Andrei Soldatov and Irina Borogan, The Red Web (Philadelphia: Perseus Books Group, 2015).

50 Milanovic, Branko, Global Inequality (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.