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Minority Rights After Helsinki

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 September 2012

Extract

The “sexiest acronym in international diplomacy.” Such was a Washington pandit's roguish, if appropriate, characterization of the CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe) just a few of years ago in 1990 after it critically helped ignite the revolutions in Eastern Europe and torpedo the Berlin Wall. Other, more serious, foreign affairs analysts were equally enthusiastic about CSCE. A prominent commentator called it the “premier post-Cold War political forum.”

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Copyright © Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs 1994

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References

1 Congress Steny H. Hoyer. chairman of the U.S. Helsinki Commission, called public attention to $$ $$ in speech delivered at Georgetown University. The auther made reference to the comment in Willam Korey. A New Charter for Helsinki. New Leader, August 6, 20, 1990, 11–13.

2 Stephen Rosenfeld. “A. Timely Warning,”Washington Post. November 30, 1990.

3 Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), Charter of Paris for a New Europe (Paris: CSCE, 1990).

4 Buergenthal, Thomas, “The Copenhagen CSCE Meeting: A New Public Order for Europe,” Human Rights Law Journal 11 (1990), 20Google Scholar.

5 CSCE, Document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the Human Dimension of the CSCE (Washington: CSCE, June 1990), 19.

6 Statement by Max M. Kampelman, Head of the U.S. Delegation to the Copenhagen CSCE Meeting, June 11, 1990.

7 William Korey. Glasnost and Soviet Anti-Senatism (New York: American Jewish Committee. 1993), 16–19.

8 On anti-Semitism. See two detailed reports of the first half of 1993 prepared bu researchers at the University of Tel Aviv under “The Project for the Study of Anti-Semitism.” They can be obtained from the Anti-Defamation League, which cooperated in the project. The anti-Fypsy pattern of attitudes has been detailed in various public-opinion surveys sponsored by the American Jewish Committee. The serious nature of racism and xenophobia is discussed in CSCE. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. Press Release. October 14, 1993. See especially its “Annex.”

9 Dominique Moïsi, “A Spectre is Haunting Europe: Its Past,”New York Times, op-ed, May 29, 1990.

10 Adam Michnik, “Why I Won't Vote for Lech Walesa,”New York Times, op-ed, November 23, 1990.

11 Statement by Foreign Minister Jiri Dienstbier to the Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension, June 4, 1990.

12 CSCE, Charter of Paris.

13 Statement by Margaret Thatcher at the Paris CSCE Summit Meeting. November 19, 1990.

14 Statement by Mikhail S. Gorbachev at the Paris CSCE Summit Meeting. November 19, 1990.

15 CSCE, Charter of Paris. This section of the document is entitled “Supplementary Document to Give Effect to Certain Provisions Contained in the Charter of Paris lor a New Europe.”

16 Mare Fisher. “New European Peace Institute in Vienna Has Lofty Goals, But Little Else,”Washington Post, June 20, 1991.

17 Berlin Meeting of the CSCE Council, 19–20 June 1991: Summary of Conclusions (Berlin: CSCE, 1991).

18 Cited in Alan Riding, “Eastern Leaders at Summit Warn of New Divisions in Europe,”New York Times, November 21, 1990.

19 Alan Riding, “The Question that Lingers on Europe: How Will the Goals be Achieved?”New York Times, November 22, 1990.

20 The Berlin article appeared in New Perspectives Quarterly (Fall 1991). It was cited by Anthony Lewis in his column “Hate Against Hate.”New York Times, November 15, 1991.

21 CSCE. The Cracow Symposium on Cultural Heritage of the CSCE Participating States (Washington: CSCE. 1991). 39.

22 Cited in Robert D. Kaplan, “Croatianism,”New Republic, November 25, 1991.

23 See David A. Jodice, United Germany and Jewish Concerns: Attitudes Toward Jews, Israel, and the Holocaust (New York: American Jewish Committee, 1991). Also see Jennifer L. Golub, German Attitudes Toward Jews: What Recent Survey Data Reveal (New York: American Jewish Committee, 1991).

24 Fritz Karmasin, Austrian Attitudes Toward Jews, Israel, and the Holocaust (New York: American Jewish Committee, 1992).

25 Renae Cohen and Jennifer L. Golub, Attitudes Toward Jews in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia (New York: American Jewish Committee, 1991).

26 Ibid. See especially tables 19 and 20, pp. 19–20.

27 Hatschikjan, Magarditseh, “Eastern Europe Nationalist Pandemonium,” Aussenpolitik 42 (1991). 213Google Scholar.

28 John Lloyd and Leyla Boulton. “The Soviet Union: Myriad Territorial Disputes Set to Take Center Stage,”Financial Times (London), August 28, 1991.

29 CSCE, The Geneva Experts Meeting on National Minorities: July 1-July 19, 1991 (Washington: CSCE, August 1991).

30 See the testimony of Ralph R. Johnson. principal deputy assistant secretary of state for European and Canadian affairs. in CSCE. Hearing on the Conflict in Europe (Washington: CSCE. October 31, 199l). Also see his testimony to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on October 16, 1991 in Department of State. Dispatch 2. No. 42.

31 CSCE. Report of the CSCE Meeting of Experts on National Minorities (Geneva: CSCE, July 1991).

32 CSCE, Digest 14 (May 1991), 12Google Scholar.

33 CSCE, The Moscow Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension (CSCE), September 10-October 4, 1991 (Washington: CSCE, 1991), 42.

34 “Highlights of the Moscow Concluding Document (Moscow, 1991),” paper prepared by the U.S. delegation and distributed to the press in Moscow in early October 1991.

35 David Shorr, “Preventive Diplomacy.”Government Executive (Washington DC). April 1493. 22–4. Also see Reuters, July 2, 1993. The dispatch is headlined “Yugoslavia Refuses New Mandate for CSCE Missions.”

36 Statement by Ambassador Max M. Kampelman, Head of the U.S. Delegation to the Moscow CSCE Meeting, September 16, 1991. Copy of statement distributed by the U.S. delegation.

37 See the detailed presentation to the U.S. House of Representatives by Hoyer, Steny H. in Congressional Record 138 (July 29, 1992), E228990Google Scholar. Also see the Helsinki Commission, Digest 6 (January 1993)Google Scholar and Watch, Helsinki, Bosnia-Hercegovina 5 (September 1993)Google Scholar.

38 See Helsinki Decisions (Helsinki: CSCE. 1992). This document of seventy-three pages carried all the decisions reached at the meeting. which ran from March to July 1992.

39 Ibid.

40 William Korey, The Promises We Keep: Human Rights, the Helsinki Process, and American Foreign Policy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993), 426.

41 Ibid., 427.

42 The author is in possession of two detailed reports, one by Y. Shiran of the World Conference on Soviet Jewry and one from the subgroup dealing with dispersed minorities by Helen Krag of Denmark.

43 CSCE. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. Press Release, October 14, 1993. See “Annex,” 2.

44 Ibid., 4.

45 CSCE, Digest 16 (May 1993), 3Google Scholar.

46 See especially Meron, Theodor, “The Case for War Crimes Trials in Yugoslavia.Foreign Affairs 72 (Summer 1993). 122–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Watch, Helsinki, Prosecute Now 5 (August 1, 1993)Google Scholar.

47 Helsinki Declaration of the CSCE Parliamentary Assembly (Helsinki: CSCE. July 9, 1993). 16.

48 The Council of Foreign Ministers, meeting in Rome on November 30-Deeemher 1, 1993, made even more institutional changes. A Permanent Committee of CSCE. to he loeated in Vienna, would provide day-to-day operational guidance It would he responsible to the Committee of Senior Officials.

A new CSCE secretariat was also created for Vienna with only an office to he kept in Prague. Earlier, the CSCE. decided to establish a Secretary-General. The role of the High Commissioner on National Minorities was enhanced and ODIHR was to he strengthened. See CSCE and the New Europe—Our Security is Indivisible (Rome: CSCE. December 1, 1993). 3–4.

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