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Effect of orange peel and black tea extracts on markers of performance and cytokine markers of inflammation in horses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Jennifer M Streltsova
Affiliation:
Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
Kenneth H McKeever
Affiliation:
Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
Nettie R Liburt
Affiliation:
Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
Mary E Gordon
Affiliation:
Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
Helio Manso Filho
Affiliation:
Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
David W Horohov
Affiliation:
Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
Robert T Rosen
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
William Franke
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
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Abstract

This study tested the hypothesis that orange peel (O) and decaffeinated black tea (T) extracts would alter markers of exercise performance as well as exercise-induced mRNA expression for the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Nine healthy, unfit Standardbred mares (age: 10±4years, ∼450kg) were assigned to three treatment groups in a randomized crossover design where each horse was administered one of the following; placebo (O; 21 water), black tea extract in water (T; 21) or orange peel extract in water (W; 21), via a nasogastric tube. One hour later the horses completed an incremental graded exercise test (GXT) on a treadmill at a fixed 6% grade with measurements and blood samples obtained at rest, at the end of each 1min step of the GXT and at 2 and 5min post-GXT. An additional set of blood samples for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) measurements of mRNA was obtained before exercise and at 5 and 30min and 1, 2, 4 and 24h post-GXT. The GXTs were conducted between 0700 and 1200h not less than 7days apart. There were no differences (P>0.05) in VO2max, respiratory exchange ratio, run time, velocity at VO2max, core body temperature, haematocrit, creatine kinase (CK), plasma lactate concentrations, HR, right ventricular pressure (RVP) or pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) across treatments. A major finding was that orange peel extract significantly reduced post-exercise VO2 recovery time (W = 112±7, O = 86±6, and T = 120±11s). There was a significant difference in plasma total protein concentration (TP) in the O runs compared with water and T. TNF-alpha mRNA expression was lower in the T runs compared with water and O trials. IFN-gamma mRNA expression levels appeared to be lower in both the T and O extract runs compared with the water trials. The mRNA expression of IL-6 was unaltered across treatment groups. These data suggest that orange peel and black tea extracts may modulate the cytokine responses to intense exercise. Orange peel extract reduced post-exercise recovery time and may potentially enhance the ability of horses to perform subsequent bouts of high-intensity exercise.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2006

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