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Cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale across 11 world-wide societies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 June 2016

D. Stevanovic
Affiliation:
Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth, Belgrade, Serbia
Z. Bagheri
Affiliation:
Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
O. Atilola
Affiliation:
Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria
P. Vostanis
Affiliation:
School of Psychology, Leicester University, Leicester, UK
D. Stupar
Affiliation:
Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth, Belgrade, Serbia
P. Moreira
Affiliation:
University Lusiada, Lisboa, Portugal
T. Franic
Affiliation:
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia
N. Davidovic
Affiliation:
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia
R. Knez
Affiliation:
Medical School, University of Rijeka, Croatia
A. Nikšić
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Rijeka, Croatia
K. Dodig-Ćurković
Affiliation:
Medical Faculty Osijek, University Health Center Osijek, Croatia
M. Avicenna
Affiliation:
Faculty of Psychology, State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia
I. Multazam Noor
Affiliation:
Dr Soeharto Heerdjan Mental Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
L. Nussbaum
Affiliation:
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ‘Victor Babes’, Timisoara, Romania
A. Deljkovic
Affiliation:
Mental Health Center Pljevlja, Montenegro
A. Aziz Thabet
Affiliation:
Al Quds University, Gaza
P. Petrov
Affiliation:
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital St. Marina, Varna, Bulgaria
D. Ubalde
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, St. Dominic College of Asia, City of Bacoor, Philippines
L. A. Monteiro
Affiliation:
Universidade Estacio de Sá in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
R. Ribas
Affiliation:
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background.

In order to compare estimates by one assessment scale across various cultures/ethnic groups, an important aspect that needs to be demonstrated is that its construct across these groups is invariant when measured using a similar and simultaneous approach (i.e., demonstrated cross-cultural measurement invariance). One of the methods for evaluating measurement invariance is testing for differential item functioning (DIF), which assesses whether different groups respond differently to particular items. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) in societies with different socioeconomic, cultural, and religious backgrounds.

Methods.

The study was organised by the International Child Mental Health Study Group. Self-reported data were collected from adolescents residing in 11 countries: Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Indonesia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Palestinian Territories, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania and Serbia. The multiple-indicators multiple-causes model was used to test the RCADS items for DIF across the countries.

Results.

Ten items exhibited DIF considering all cross-country comparisons. Only one or two items were flagged with DIF in the head-to-head comparisons, while there were three to five items flagged with DIF, when one country was compared with the others. Even with all cross-culturally non-invariant items removed from nine language versions tested, the original factor model representing six anxiety and depressive symptoms subscales was not significantly violated.

Conclusions.

There is clear evidence that relatively small number of the RCADS items is non-invariant, especially when comparing two different cultural/ethnic groups, which indicates on its sound cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparisons in adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

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Footnotes

There was an error of omission in the title that has now been corrected and a notice has been published providing details.

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