Hostname: page-component-5db6c4db9b-mcx2m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-26T23:21:26.422Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Conceptualizing risk assessment methodology for genetically modified organisms

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 November 2005

Ryan A. HILL*
Biosafety Programme, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 413 St. Jacques Street, Suite 800, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2Y1N9


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
© ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2005


Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003) Working principles for risk analysis for application in the framework of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Report of the 26th session of the Commission, 30 June – 7 July 2003. Document ALINORM 03/41, Appendix IV
EU (European Union) (2002) Decision 2002/623/EC of 24 July 2002 of the European Commission establishing guidance notes supplementing annex II of Directive 2001/18/EC. Available at
Hill, RA, Sendashonga, C (2003) General principles for risk assessment of living modified organisms: lessons from chemical risk assessment. Environ. Biosafety Res. 2: 8188 CrossRef
Losey, JE, Rayor, LS, Carter, ME (1999) Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature 399: 214 CrossRef
OGTR (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator) (2005) Risk Analysis Framework. Government of Australia. Available at
SCBD (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity) (2005) Risk assessment and risk management (Articles 15 and 16) – Pre-sessional paper UNEP/CBD/BS/COP-MOP/2/9 prepared for the second meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Protocol, 30 May – 3 June 2005, Montreal, Canada. Available at
Sears, MK, Hellmich, RL, Stanley-Horn, DE, Oberhauser, KS, Pleasants, JM, Mattila, HR, Siegfried, BD, Dively, GP (2001) Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: a risk assessment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 1193711942 CrossRef
USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (1998) Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington Office, Washington, D.C.