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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 August 2013


Vienna, 21 August 1773: Mozart signs off a letter to his sister Nannerl in his usual jocular manner: ‘oidda – gnagflow Trazom neiw ned 12 tsugua 3771’. This ‘arseways’ spelling of his signature is an early example of Mozart's well-known fondness for jesting and playing with patterns – spatial, arithmetical, linguistic and musical. Mozart appears to have been especially committed to such games in the 1770s. This was a period when he was also involved with the more serious matter of advancing his career, in which the composition of the first six so-called ‘difficult’ yet also ‘popular’ keyboard sonatas, k279–284, played an integral part. This article reads certain inexplicable gestures in the first sonata, k279, as reflecting Mozart's preoccupation with witty expressions at this time, seemingly as part of his attempt to gain the favour of prospective patrons, publishers and employers. The idiosyncrasies of the sonata result from an intersection of the syntax of phrase-level patterning and large-scale form with the semiosis of musical topics, eliciting laughter or simply a smile. Mozart's communicative strategy is situated in a broader context of the compositional play, wit and humour discussed in late eighteenth-century theory and aesthetics. It also allows us to revisit several implications arising from Danuta Mirka and Kofi Agawu's Communication in Eighteenth-Century Music of 2008, including the importance of ‘context’ for successful communication, the susceptibility of eighteenth-century artefacts to present-day misreading and the problem of Kenner, Liebhaber and audiences in general.

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1 The Letters of Mozart and His Family, third edition, trans. and ed. Anderson, Emily (London: Macmillan, 1985)Google Scholar, No. 180a (hereafter Letters).

2 Letters, No. 228b, 23 October 1777.

3 See, for example, Winternitz, Emanuel, ‘Gnagflow Trazom: An Essay on Mozart's Script, Pastimes, and Nonsense Letters’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 11/2–3 (1958), 200216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar. In a recent paper at the Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society held in Indianapolis in 2010, Craig Wright explored Mozart's predilection for playing games from the perspective of ‘homospatial thinking’: ‘Mozart and the Kingdom of Back: An Oddity in His Cognitive Process’.

4 Letters, No. 166a.

5 Konrad, Ulrich, ed., Skizzen, Neue Mozart-Ausgabe X/30/3 (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1998)Google Scholar.

6 Gutman, Robert W., Mozart: A Cultural Biography (San Diego: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999), 332 Google Scholar.

7 Aside from the Mozart correspondence, that the composer intended the set for publication is suggested by the sequence of keys. On this point see Einstein, Alfred, Mozart: His Character, His Work, trans. Mendel, Arthur and Broder, Nathan (New York: Oxford University Press, 1945), 239241 Google Scholar. On the date of composition see Plath, Wolfgang, ‘Zur Datierung der Klaviersonaten, kv279–284’, Acta Mozartiana 21/2 (1974), 2630 Google Scholar; Plath, Wolfgang and Rehm, Wolfgang, ‘Vorwort’, Klaviersonaten Band 1, Neue Mozart-Ausgabe IX/25/1 (Kassel: Bärenreiter 1986), xi Google Scholar; and Irving, John, Mozart's Piano Sonatas: Contexts, Sources, Style (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 51 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

8 Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sämtlicher Tonwerke Wolfgang Amadé Mozarts: Nebst Angabe der verlorengegangenen, angefangenen, von fremder Hand bearbeiteten, zweifelhaften und unterschobenen Kompositionen, sixth edition, ed. Giegling, Franz, Weinmann, Alexander and Sievers, Gerd (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel and New York: Peters, 1964), 214 Google Scholar.

9 For example, Letters, Nos 281, 331 and 244.

10 Letters, No. 225.

11 Letters, No. 235. On the relations between Cannabich and the Mozart family see Heartz, Daniel, Music in European Capitals: The Galant Style, 1720–1780 (New York: Norton, 2003), 537538 Google Scholar.

12 See John Irving, Mozart's Piano Sonatas, 29–30.

13 Letters, No. 204.

14 Irving, Mozart's Piano Sonatas, xiv.

15 Irving, Mozart's Piano Sonatas, 53. See also Mozart's letter to Leopold, from Paris, of 11 September 1778, Letters No. 331.

16 Letters, No. 221a. On Mozart's preference for Stein's fortepianos see Letter No. 225, dated 17 October 1777,

17 Letters, No. 194a (my translation).

18 Other grammatical inversions are seen in letters dated 5 November, 26 November and 3 December 1777: Letters, Nos 236, 249a and 253.

19 Four earlier sonatas, kApp 199–202/33d–g, are now lost. At the time of writing, a new sonata in C major has been discovered in Salzburg that scholars at the Stiftung Mozarteum have attributed to Mozart. See <>.

20 The presence of dynamic markings in the autograph suggests the sonata was specifically intended for the fortepiano. For further details regarding the contexts and sources of the sonata see Irving, Mozart's Piano Sonatas.

21 Irving, , Understanding Mozart's Piano Sonatas (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), 78 Google Scholar.

22 Heartz, Daniel, Haydn, Mozart and the Viennese School, 1740–1780 (New York: Norton, 1995), 587 Google Scholar.

23 Kinderman, William, Mozart's Piano Music (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 29 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

24 Kinderman, Mozart's Piano Music, 29.

25 Caplin, William E., Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 186187 Google Scholar.

26 Hepokoski, James and Darcy, Warren, Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

27 Mirka, Danuta and Agawu, Kofi, eds, Communication in Eighteenth-Century Music (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

28 Mirka, ‘Introduction’, in Communication in Eighteenth-Century Music, 1–10.

29 See Cobley, Paul, ‘General Introduction’, in Communication Theories, ed. Cobley, Paul, four volumes (London: Routledge, 2006), volume 1, 133 Google Scholar.

30 Iser, Wolfgang, The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 21 Google Scholar.

31 Meyer, Leonard B., Music, The Arts, and Ideas: Patterns and Predictions in Twentieth-Century Culture, reprinted edition, with a new postlude (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

32 Cobley, ‘Communication and Verisimilitude in the Eighteenth Century’, in Communication in Eighteenth-Century Music, 13–15.

33 Cobley, ‘Communication and Verisimilitude’, 16.

34 Geertz, Clifford, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973)Google Scholar.

35 Meyer, , Style and Music: Theory, History, and Ideology (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), x, 10 Google Scholar.

36 Riepel, Joseph, Anfangsgründe zur musikalischen Setzkunst, five volumes (Augsburg, 1752–1768)Google Scholar; Koch, Heinrich Christoph, Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition, three volumes (volume 1, Rudolstadt, 1782 Google Scholar; volumes 2 and 3, Leipzig: Adam Friedrich Böhme, 1787 and 1793); selections trans. Baker, Nancy Kovaleff as Introductory Essay on Composition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983)Google Scholar; Berger, Karol, Bach's Cycle, Mozart's Arrow: An Essay on the Origins of Musical Modernity (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Berger, ‘Mozart's Concerto Andante Punctuation Form’, Mozart-Jahrbuch 1998, 119–138; Berger, , ‘The First-Movement Punctuation Form in Mozart's Piano Concertos’, in Mozart's Piano Concertos: Text, Context, Interpretation, ed. Zaslaw, Neal (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996), 239254 Google Scholar; Berger, , ‘Toward a History of Hearing: The Classic Concerto, A Sample Case’, in Convention in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Music: Essays in Honor of Leonard G. Ratner, ed. Allanbrook, Wye J., Levy, Janet M. and Mahrt, William P. (Stuyvesant: Pendragon, 1992), 405429 Google Scholar; Berger, ‘The Second-Movement Punctuation Form in Mozart's Piano Concertos: The Andantino of K. 449’, Mozart-Jahrbuch 1991, 168–172.

37 Gjerdingen, Robert O., Music in the Galant Style (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 59 Google Scholar.

38 Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 605.

39 Sanguinetti, Giorgio, The Art of Partimento: History, Theory, and Practice (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), viii, 10 Google Scholar.

40 Byros, Vasili, ‘Meyer's Anvil: Revisiting the Schema Concept’, Music Analysis 31/3 (2012), 273346 CrossRefGoogle Scholar, and ‘Foundations of Tonality as Situated Cognition, 1730–1830: An Enquiry into the Culture and Cognition of Eighteenth-Century Tonality, with Beethoven's Eroica Symphony as a Case Study’ (PhD dissertation, Yale University, 2009).

41 I thank Evan Cortens for bringing this subtlety to my attention.

42 Hall, Edward T., The Silent Language (New York: Anchor, 1973)Google Scholar.

43 Mark Evan Bonds, ‘Listening to Listeners’, in Communication in Eighteenth-Century Music, 34–52.

44 Irving, Howard, ‘Haydn and Laurence Sterne: Similarities in Eighteenth-Century Literary and Musical Wit’, Current Musicology 40 (1985), 34 Google Scholar.

45 Toews, John E., ‘The Historian in the Labyrinth of Signs: Reconstructing Cultures and Reading Texts in the Practice of Intellectual History’, Semiotica 83/3–4 (1991), 351384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

46 I use the term ‘topic’ here with some trepidation, knowing that the concept is about to receive an overhaul in the forthcoming Oxford Handbook of Topic Theory, edited by Mirka, Danuta. For the present purpose, my use of the term and concept is consistent with Kofi Agawu's ‘Universe of Topic for Classic Music’, outlined in his Music as Discourse (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 4345 Google Scholar.

47 On two occasions Gjerdingen refers to a ‘Fenaroli-style Ponte’ and then a ‘Fenaroli-type Ponte’, but does not explore the hybrid further; see Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 202, 207.

48 In some examples the angular Fenaroli line, , is cyclically realized as .

49 Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Versuch über die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen, two volumes (volume 1, Berlin, 1753; volume 2, Berlin, 1762), volume 2, chapter 25, unnumbered example, 215–216; trans. and ed. William J. Mitchell as Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments (New York: Norton, 1949 and London: Eulenburg, 1974), part 2, chapter 6, figure 415, 345–346.

50 Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 215; Caplin, Classical Form, 16, 77; Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 24, 30–34.

51 Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 200.

52 See, for example, the opening of the sonata k330, written four years later.

53 Most biographers maintain this view, including Wyzewa and Saint-Foix, Einstein and Gutman. For a more critical and cautious reading of the possible connections between Haydn's ‘Esterházy’ sonatas and Mozart's first set see Irving, John, ‘Haydn's Influence on Mozart's Sonatas, K. 279–84: Fact or Fiction?’, Revue belge de Musicologie/Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap 53 (1999), 137150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

54 Caplin, Classical Form, 133.

55 On the distinction between chord and function in such dominant prolongations see Cadwallader, Allen and Gagné, David, Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach, third edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 4174 Google Scholar.

56 For example, the opening movement of Schobert's Op. 17 No. 2 is among Mozart's several arrangements of other composers' works as keyboard concertos: it serves as the slow movement of k39. The slow movement of the later Sonata in A minor, k310, also contains a near-literal quotation of a passage from the same composition.

57 This probability matrix is admittedly based on a modest sample of works: the fourteen compositions featured in Gjerdingen's chapters 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21–24, 26 and 28–29. See Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 373, 496.

58 The extant sonatas survive in non-autograph manuscript copies. We cannot be certain about their order and grouping into multimovement works. For a critical discussion of the sonatas' sources, which also attempts a multimovement reconstruction, see Cimarosa, Domenico, Sonate per clavicembalo o fortepiano, ed. Coen, Andrea, two volumes (Padua: Zanibon, 1989)Google Scholar.

59 Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 91.

60 Caplin, Classical Form, 15, 20.

61 Mattheson, Johann, Der vollkommene Capellmeister (Hamburg, 1739)Google Scholar; Scheibe, Johann Adolph, Der critische Musikus, two volumes (Hamburg, 1738–1740, 1745)Google Scholar; Joseph Riepel, Anfangsgründe; Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm, Kritische Briefe über die Tonkunst, 2 vols (Berlin, 1759–1763)Google Scholar; Johann Philipp Kirnberger, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik, two volumes (volume 1, Berlin, 1771; volume 2, sections 1–3, Berlin and Königsberg, 1776, 1777 and 1779), selections trans. Beach, David and Thym, Jurgen as The Art of Strict Musical Composition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982)Google Scholar; and Koch, Versuch. For a survey of the concept of musical punctuation in the eighteenth century see Vial, Stephanie, The Art of Musical Phrasing in the Eighteenth Century (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2008)Google Scholar.

62 Koch, Versuch, volume 2, section 77, 342–343 (=Introductory Essay, 1).

63 Koch, Versuch, volume 3, section 129, 342 (=Introductory Essay, 213).

64 Koch, Versuch, volume 2, section 112, 440 (=Introductory Essay, 48); volume 3, section 58, 197 (=Introductory Essay, 150). Baker translates this term as ‘interphrase punctuation’ (Introductory Essay, 48). Though more elegant in English, it misses Koch's sense that phrases are collocated by means of punctuation.

65 Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste, two volumes (Leipzig: Weidmannschen, 1771–1774; fourth enlarged edition with supplements by C. F. von Blankenburg, four volumes, Leipzig, 1796–1798), see the entry ‘Sonate’; Koch, Versuch, volume 3, section 119, 331 (=Introductory Essay, 209); section 113, 322 (=Introductory Essay, 205).

66 Koch, Versuch, volume 3, section 39, 128 (=Introductory Essay, 118).

67 Koch, Versuch, volume 2, sections 79–80, 346–349 (=Introductory Essay, 2–3).

68 I explore the notion of sonata form as a large-scale ‘script’ more formally in Byros, Vasili, ‘ Hauptruhepuncte des Geistes: Punctuation Schemas and the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata’, in What is a Cadence? Theoretical and Analytical Perspectives on Cadences in the Classical Repertoire, ed. Neuwirth, Markus and Bergé, Pieter (Leuven: Leuven University Press, forthcoming)Google Scholar.

69 Koch, Versuch, volume 3, section 103, 311 (=Introductory Essay, 201); also section 129, 342–343 (=Introductory Essay, 213); Koch, , Musikalisches Lexicon (Frankfurt am Main: August Hermann der Jüngere, 1802)Google Scholar see the entry ‘Quintabsatz’.

70 Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 13.

71 Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, chapters 3, 7, 8, 11.

72 Koch, Versuch, volume 2, section 79, 347–348 (=Introductory Essay, 2–3); section 94, 390 (=Introductory Essay, 22); volume 3, section 5, 7 (=Introductory Essay, 64); section 150, 395 (=Introductory Essay, 234).

73 Koch, Versuch, volume 2, section 79, 347–348 (=Introductory Essay, 2–3).

74 Koch, Versuch, volume 2 section 110, 435 (=Introductory Essay, 45).

75 The remaining seven examples appear after the analogous half cadence that closes a development section. On the structural similarities between the transition of an exposition and the close of a development see Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 217.

76 Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 31.

77 On the close musical and even personal relationships between the Mozarts and Emanuel Bach, Christian Bach, Eckard, Schobert, Mysliveček and Haydn see, for example, Anderson, ed. and trans., Letters; Heartz, Haydn, Mozart and the Viennese School; Heartz, Music in European Capitals; and Gutman, Mozart.

78 A third instance also appears in the symphony as the development's retransitional dominant, in bars 198–206.

79 Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 224–229, 460.

80 The Fenaroli-Ponte can be broken down into further categories. For instance, in some of the examples cited here the Anhang produced by the Fenaroli-Ponte does not end with another half cadence and rhetorical caesura (as is customary for an appendix), but leads to a perfect authentic cadence. This PAC is the Cadenz that closes the second theme. The Anhang is transformed into the third, Cadenz-producing phrase of the Hauptperiode (which is the case with the Schobert and Cimarosa pieces given as Examples 4 and 5), a practice especially characteristic of earlier sonatas and some sonatas with so-called ‘continuous expositions’ (Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 51–64): for example, Haydn's ‘Joke’ Quartet, Op. 33 No. 2 (see Appendix, Haydn Nos 16 and 17), discussed in Elements, 54–55. More recently, Caplin has discussed such a fusing of ‘transition’ and ‘subordinate-theme’ functions as one of several ‘blurred-boundary’ categories (‘The Continuous Exposition and the Concept of Subordinate Theme’, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Music Theory, Minneapolis, 2011). On a related phenomenon see Caplin's discussion of standing on the dominant to begin a second theme (Classical Form, 113–115) and Hepokoski and Darcy's S0 category (Elements, 142–145). The super-category that binds all of these phenomena together is suggested by Riepel's functional characterization of a Ponte within a larger punctuation-oriented view of musical form: the Fenaroli-Ponte effects a bridge (realized in different ways) between two important moments of punctuation that belong to the second and third Absätze of a Hauptperiode: the half cadence (Halbcadenz) of the transition and the Cadenz of the second theme. The more relevant issue here, as it affects k279, is that a Fenaroli-Ponte never appears in advance of the transition's cadential goal (half cadence or dominant arrival), but only expands or sustains that goal after the fact through a dominant expansion, even if that dominant expansion eventually leads to a PAC without effecting a rhetorical caesura between the transition and second theme. The schema is further discussed in Byros, ‘Hauptruhepuncte des Geistes: Punctuation Schemas and the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata’ (forthcoming).

81 On the context-independence of a pattern's inherent formal function see Caplin, Classical Form, 111; Agawu, V. Kofi, Playing with Signs: A Semiotic Interpretation of Classic Music (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991), 103 Google Scholar; and Vallières, Michel, Tan, Daphne, Caplin, William E. and McAdams, Stephen, ‘Perception of Intrinsic Formal Functionality: An Empirical Investigation of Mozart's Materials’, Journal of Interdisciplinary Music Studies 3/1–2 (2009), 1743 Google Scholar.

82 Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 24 (my italics).

83 Three of Mozart's later fortepiano sonatas, k333, k311 and k570, all use a Fenaroli-Ponte with an ‘implied dominant pedal point’ between two literal dominant basses and half cadences (see Appendix, Mozart Nos 17, 22–23, 30–31).

84 Koch, Versuch, volume 3, section 59, 198 (=Introductory Essay, 151). William Rothstein has referred to the phenomenon as a ‘cadence-altering suffix’, which ‘force[s] a listener to change his evaluation of the cadence’: Rothstein, , Phrase Rhythm in Tonal Music (New York: Schirmer, 1989), 95 Google Scholar.

85 Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 102–105; Caplin, Classical Form, 129.

86 Marpurg, Kritische Briefe, volume 2, 31.

87 The Fenaroli-Ponte does end up closing with a half cadence at bar 16, but this caesura is the second of two cadences that belong to any Anhang: ‘Through such an appendix the extended phrase usually acquires two phrase-endings on one and the same root’; Koch, Versuch, volume 2, section 110, 437 (=Introductory Essay, 45). The elision of the first cadence and of its preparation in k279 give the impression of a truncated transition, part of which has been displaced to the ‘second theme’. Following this ‘makeshift’ caesura of bar 16 there begins, as Hepokoski and Darcy describe it, an ‘extremely unusual S’ (Elements, 105). Its strangeness also results from an unconventional sonata-form use of a schema: the second theme begins with a ‘Fonte’, which normally occurs at the beginning of a transition, particularly in several compositions of Mozart that are tonically overdetermined, as is k279 (see Elements, 74).

88 Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, 140–141.

89 Caplin, Classical Form, 111. See also 101, 103 and 107 for discussion of the ‘drama’ of the evaded cadence.

90 Sanguinetti, The Art of Partimento, 107–110.

91 The Neue Mozart-Ausgabe also lists an ossia variant that partially corrects the voice-leading and registral anomaly. Their main text, used for Example 12, is derived from an early print by Johann André (Offenbach, 1841), which was based on the now lost original autograph. The ossia variant derives from the first edition published by Breitkopf & Härtel (Leipzig, 1799). See Plath and Rehm, ‘Vorwort’, xii.

92 Caplin, Classical Form, 111.

93 Forkel, Johann Nikolaus, Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik, two volumes (Leipzig, 1788, 1801), volume 1, sections 112, 114, 118Google Scholar.

94 Koch, Versuch, volume 3, section 70–71, 218–225 (=Introductory Essay, 160–163).

95 Kirnberger, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes, volume 2, section 1 (1776), 143 (=The Art of Strict Musical Composition, 409).

96 Adelung, Johann Christoph, Über den deutschen Styl (Berlin: C. F. Voss, 1785 Google Scholar; reprinted Hildesheim: Olms, 1974), 284, 307, 456, 476.

97 See Riley, Matthew, Musical Listening in the German Enlightenment: Attention, Wonder and Astonishment (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), 132146 Google Scholar. No extensive or systematic typology for the many possible figures exists in the eighteenth century (to my knowledge), and most contemporary writers are quick to cite a few examples, and then stress the inexhaustibility of the subject matter.

98 Koch, Versuch, volume 2, 23, 34. Translated in Aesthetics and the Art of Musical Composition in the German Enlightenment: Selected Writings of Johann Georg Sulzer and Heinrich Christoph Koch, ed. and trans. Baker, Nancy Kovaleff and Christensen, Thomas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 147, 152Google Scholar.

99 Mattheson, Johann, Das neu eröffnete Orchestre (Hamburg, 1713)Google Scholar and Der vollkommene Capellmeister; Scheibe, Der critische Musikus; Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste; Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon.

100 David Huron's own empirical efforts have investigated ‘what [causes] some thwarted expectations [to elicit] laughter rather than frisson’, when ‘departure from the conventional [in general is what] tempts one into laughter’; one ‘pivotal factor’, he observes, is the underlying extramusical context and social situation, which encourages or conditions a particular response, an argument also found in the general literature on the psychology of humour. In music, such contexts are provided by topoi, which clarify the overall mood or sentiment of a situation. Huron, , Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2006), 287 Google Scholar; see also Huron, , ‘Music-Engendered Laughter: An Analysis of Humor Devices in PDQ Bach’, in Lipscomb, S. D., Ashley, R., Gjerdingen, R. O. and Webster, P., eds, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Music Perception and Cognition (Evanston: Casual Productions, 2004), 9396 Google Scholar, and Martin, Rod A., The Psychology of Humor: An Integrative Approach (Burlington: Academic Press, 2006)Google Scholar.

101 Koch, Versuch, volume 2, 34 (=Aesthetics and the Art of Musical Composition in the German Enlightenment, 152).

102 For a similar argument see Mirka, Danuta, Metric Manipulations in Haydn and Mozart: Chamber Music for Strings, 1787–1791 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 302303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

103 On the ‘sublime’ in eighteenth-century music see, for example, Sisman, Elaine, Mozart: The ‘Jupiter’ Symphony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 79 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Brown, A. Peter, ‘The Sublime, the Beautiful, and the Ornamental: English Aesthetic Currents and Haydn's London Symphonies’, in Studies in Music History, Presented to H. C. Robbins Landon on His Seventieth Birthday, ed. Biba, Otto and Jones, David Wyn (London: Thames and Hudson, 1996), 4471 Google Scholar; Webster, James, ‘The Creation, Haydn's Late Vocal Music, and the Musical Sublime’, in Haydn and His World, ed. Sisman, Elaine (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997), 57102 Google Scholar; Webster, James, Haydn's ‘Farewell’ Symphony and the Idea of Classical Style (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 162–163, 230–231, 247–248, 365, 369CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Schwartz, Judith L., ‘Periodicity and Passion in the First Movement of Haydn's “Farewell” Symphony’, in Studies in Musical Sources and Style: Essays in Honor of Jan LaRue, ed. Wolf, Eugene K. and Roesner, Edward H. (Madison: A-R Editions, 1990), 293338 Google Scholar; Mark Evan Bonds, ‘The Symphony as Pindaric Ode’, in Haydn and His World, 131–153; and Taruskin, Richard, The Oxford History of Western Music, volume 2: The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 646 Google Scholar.

104 Sulzer, , Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste, fourth edition, volume 1 (Leipzig: 1792; reprinted Hildesheim: Olms, 1967), 485 Google Scholar.

105 Koch, ‘Komisch’, Musikalisches Lexikon, columns 872–873; Weber, Friedrich August, ‘Über komische Charakteristik und Karrikatur in praktischen Musikwerken’, Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 3/9 ( 26 November 1800 )Google Scholar, columns 138–143, and 3/10 (13 December 1800), columns 157–162; Rochlitz, Friedrich, ‘Über den zweckmässigen Gebrauch der Mittel der Tonkunst’, Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 8/1 ( 2 October 1805 )Google Scholar, columns 3–10, 8/4 (23 October 1805), columns 49–59, 8/13 (25 December 1805), columns 193–201, and 8/16 (15 January 1806), columns 241–249; Michaelis, Christian Friedrich, ‘Über das Humoristische oder Launige in der musikalischen Komposition’, Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 9/46 ( 12 August 1807 )Google Scholar, columns 725–729.

106 Weber, ‘Über komische Charakteristik und Karrikatur’, columns 139–140: ‘Abweichung von der allgemeinen Regel’. Representative studies of compositional play and their affect in the music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven include: Irving, ‘Haydn and Laurence Sterne’; Bonds, Mark Evan, ‘Haydn, Laurence Sterne, and the Origins of Musical Irony’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 44/1 (1991), 5791 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Wheelock, Gretchen A., Haydn's Ingenious Jesting with Art: Contexts of Musical Wit and Humor (New York: Schirmer, 1992)Google Scholar; Claudia Maurer Zenck, ‘“Mannichfaltige Abweichungen von der gewöhnlichen Sonaten-Form”: Beethoven's “Piano Solo” Op. 31 No. 1 and the Challenge of Communication’, in Communication in Eighteenth-Century Music, 53–79; Danuta Mirka, ‘Metre, Phrase Structure and Manipulations of Musical Beginnings’, in Communication in Eighteenth-Century Music, 83–111; Mirka, Metric Manipulations; Allanbrook, Wye J., ‘Theorizing the Comic Surface’, in Music in the Mirror: Reflections on the History of Music Theory and Literature for the 21st Century, ed. Giger, Andreas and Mathiesen, Thomas J. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002), 195216 Google Scholar; and Allanbrook, ‘Comic Issues in Mozart's Piano Concertos’, in Mozart's Piano Concertos: Text, Context, Interpretation, 75–105.

107 Weber, ‘Über komische Charakteristik und Karrikatur’, column 141.

108 Mirka, Metric Manipulations, 298. Other studies that consider the parodying of musical performance in the eighteenth century include Wheelock, Haydn's Ingenious Jesting; Eisen, Cliff, ‘Mozart's Chamber Music’, in The Cambridge Companion to Mozart, ed. Keefe, Simon P. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 105117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Zenck, ‘Mannichfaltige Abweichungen’; Beghin, Tom, ‘“Delivery, Delivery, Delivery!”: Crowning the Rhetorical Process of Haydn's Keyboard Sonatas’, in Haydn and the Performance of Rhetoric, ed. Beghin, Tom and Goldberg, Sander M. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 131171 Google Scholar; and James Webster, ‘The Rhetoric of Improvisation in Haydn's Keyboard Music’, in Haydn and the Performance of Rhetoric, 172–212.

109 Mirka, Metric Manipulations, 300.

110 Daniel Gottlieb Türk, Klavierschule (Leipzig and Halle, 1789; facsimile edition Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1962), 266.

111 Koch, Versuch, volume 2, 41 (=Aesthetics and the Art of Musical Composition in the German Enlightenment, 155).

112 Irving, Understanding Mozart's Piano Sonatas, 78.

113 Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste, 212–213.

114 Weber, ‘Über komische Charakteristik und Karrikatur’, columns 139–140; translated in Zenck, ‘Mannichfaltige Abweichungen’, 56.

115 Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie, 212–213; translated in Ratner, Leonard G., Classic Music: Expression, Form, and Style (New York: Schirmer, 1980), 386 Google Scholar.

116 Ratner, Classic Music, 389.

117 Letters, No. 228b, 23 October 1777.

118 Sanguinetti, The Art of Partimento, 111, 270–273.

119 See Hepokoski and Darcy, Elements, chapter 8, 150–170, and Caplin, Classical Form, 101, 107.

120 Letters, No. 311. For an interpretation of Mozart's use of an ‘effective passage’ relating to the first movement, referred to in the same letter, see Range, Matthias, ‘The “Effective Passage” in Mozart's “Paris” Symphony’, Eighteenth-Century Music 9/1 (2012), 109119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar. The translation used here is from Mark Evan Bonds, ‘Listening to Listeners’, 37.

121 Meyer, Style and Music, 14–16.

122 Letters, No. 476.

123 Letters, No. 308.

124 Bach, Versuch, volume 1, 78 (=Essay, 78). For a similar argument by Forkel see Riley, Matthew, ‘Johann Nikolaus Forkel on the Listening Practices of “Kenner” and “Liebhaber”’, Music and Letters 84/3 (2003), 414433 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

125 See in this connection Uri B. Rom, ‘Structural Deformation as a Token of Undercurrent Humor in Mozart's Instrumental Rondos’, paper presented at the Seventh European Music Analysis Conference (EUROMAC), Rome, 29 September–2 October 2011. Rom suggests that Mozart's humour, unlike Haydn's, is specifically a ‘theatrical’ one, based on a metaphor of ‘music is dramatis personae in action’.

126 Though his intrusion serves a productive role, none the less. The parenthetical disruption gives Mr Indugio time to comport himself; he too first entered the recapitulation, at bar 82, wearing the wrong thematic ‘dress’ (compare this to bars 25–29), by masquerading as the preluding arpeggiation modules from bars 9 and 11 of the principal theme (compare Examples 1, 8 and 12). Only at bar 86 does the Indugio recapitulate with syntax and topic intact.

127 See Mirka, Metric Manipulations, 309.

128 Irving, ‘Haydn and Laurence Sterne’, 34.

129 See Flothuis, Marius, ‘Vorwort’, Klavierkonzerte Band 4, Neue Mozart-Ausgabe V/15/4 (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1975), ixxii Google Scholar.

130 For a penetrating study of how Mozart tailored specifically symphonic compositions to the experiences of various types of audiences see Zaslaw, Neal, ‘Audiences for Mozart's Symphonies during His Lifetime’, Israel Studies in Musicology 6 (1996), 1732 Google Scholar. For a similarly anti-romantic view of Mozart's compositional endeavours see Zaslaw, , ‘Mozart the Working Stiff’, in On Mozart, ed. Morris, James M. (Washington: Woodrow Wilson University Press and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 102112 Google Scholar.

131 Byros, , ‘Meyer's Anvil’ and ‘Towards an “Archaeology” of Hearing: Schemata and Eighteenth-Century Consciousness’, Musica Humana 1/2 (2009), 235306 Google Scholar.

132 Allan Kozinn, ‘Mozart, in the Delicate Voice of Fortepiano’, The New York Times, 20 September 2006. The fortepiano Feltsman used was a modern reconstruction (by Paul McNulty) of one of Mozart's preferred instruments, the fortepiano of Anton Walter.

133 Mirka, ‘Introduction’, in Communication in Eighteenth-Century Music, 3.

134 Letters, No. 249a.

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