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William Beveridge (1637–1708)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 January 2021

Norman Doe*
Professor of Law, Cardiff University
Dimitrios (Aetios) Nikiforos*
Very Reverend Grand Ecclesiarch of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople


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Rediscovering Anglican Priest-Jurists: III
Copyright © Ecclesiastical Law Society 2021

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1 Helmholz, R, Roman Canon Law in Reformation England (Cambridge, 1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. The book was, in part, a companion to and development of Maitland, F, Roman Canon Law in the Church of England (London, 1898)Google Scholar. Professor Helmholz builds on his 1990 study in his monumental The Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction from 597 to the 1640s (Oxford, 2004) and he introduces us to elements of the further use of Roman canon law beyond the 1640s in The Profession of Ecclesiastical Lawyers: an historic introduction (Cambridge, 2019).

2 Cowie, L, ‘Beveridge, William (1637–1708)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004)Google Scholar.

3 A fellow pupil at Oakham and St John's was William Cave (1637–1713), who became a cleric and wrote on the history of the Early Church – the apostles, fathers, and governance by bishops, as well as A Dissertation Concerning the Government of the Ancient Church by Bishops, Metropolitans and Patriarchs (London, 1683).

4 The words of Isaac Milles (1638–1720): see Baker, T, History of the College of St. John the Evangelist, Cambridge, ed Mayor, J, 2 vols (Cambridge, 1869)Google Scholar, vol ii, p 646; and Mullinger, J, St. John's College (London, 1901), pp 3536Google Scholar.

5 W Beveridge, De linguarum orientalium: præsertim Hebraicæ, Chaldaicæ, Syriacæ, Arabicæ & Samaritanæ præstatia (The Excellency and Use of the Oriental Tongues, Especially Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac and Samaritan, Together with a Grammar of the Syriac Language) (London, 1658; second edition 1664).

6 Beveridge, W, Private Thoughts on Religion and a Christian Life (Philadelphia 1829)Google Scholar.

7 Beveridge, W, Synodikon sive Pandectae Canonum SS. Apostolorum et Conciliorum ab ecclesia graeca receptorum, 2 vols (Oxford, 1672)Google Scholar.

8 M de Larroque, Observationes in Ignatianas Personii vindicias et in annotationes Beveregii in Canones Sanctorum Apostolorum (Rouen, 1674), which was also a defence of Jean Daillé (French Reformed theologian, 1594–1670). W Beveridge, Codex Canonum Ecclesiae Primitavae Vindicatus, ac Illustratus (London, 1678).

9 The Theological Works of William Beveridge, vol i (Oxford, 1842), preface, p v: ‘the two great works by which he is best known’ are the Synodikon and the Codex Canonum Ecclesiae Primitivae Vindicatus, the latter inserted in volume ii of the Patres Apostolici (Paris, 1672; Amsterdam, 1724) of Jean-Baptiste Cotelier or Cotelerius (1629–1686), a Roman Catholic patristic theologian.

10 Miscellanea; Comprising I. The works and Letters of Denis Granville, D.D., Dean of Durham, II. Nathan Drake's Account of the Siege of Pontefract Castle, III. A Brief Memoir of Mr. Justice Rokeby (Durham, 1861), p xxi.

11 Baker, History of the College of St. John, vol ii, p 704. Burnet wrote The History of the Reformation of the Church of England, 2 vols (London, 1679–1681). In 1675 John Tillotson (later Archbishop of Canterbury) said to Beveridge: ‘Doctor, doctor, charity is better than rubrics’: T Birch, The Life of the Most Reverend John Tillotson (London, 1752), p lxxxxviii.

12 W Beveridge, A Sermon Concerning the Excellency and Usefulness of the Common-Prayer (London, 1682). The sermon was reissued many times, reaching its 44th edition in 1824.

13 With other clergy he also helped promote various devotional associations of laymen in London in the 1680s.

14 For criticism of him, see A Vindication of Their Majesties’ Authority to Fill the Sees of the Deprived Bishops, in a Letter out of the Country, Occasioned by Dr. B—s’ Refusal of the Bishoprick of Bath and Wells (London, 1691).

15 For the practice of commendams, see eg J Godolphin, Repertorium Canonicum, or An Abridgment of the Ecclesiastical Laws (London, 1678), pp 230–232.

16 N Doe (ed), A New History of the Church in Wales: governance and ministry, theology and society (Cambridge, 2020), pp 15–18.

17 The National Archives, London, PROB 11/500, sig 52.

18 D Whitby, A Short View of Dr. Beveridge's Writings (1711) 26.

19 W Beveridge, An Exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles (London, 1710).

20 T Gregory (ed), The Works of the Right Reverend Father in God, William Beveridge, 2 vols (London, 1720); T Horne (ed), The Works of the Right Rev. William Beveridge, 9 vols (London, 1824); J Bliss (ed), The Theological Works of William Beveridge, 12 vols (Oxford, 1842–1848).

21 Συνοδικόν, sive Pandectae canonum ss. Apostolorum et conciliorum ab ecclesia graeca receptorum, nec non canonicarum ss. Patrum epistolarum, una cum scholiis antiquorum singulis eorum annexis et scriptis aliis huc spectantibus, quorum plurima e bibliothecae Bodleianae aliarumque mss. Codibus nunc primum edita, reliqua cum iisdem mss summa fide et diligentia collata. Totum opus in duos tomos divisum, Guilielmus Beveregius, ecclesiae anglicanae presbyter, recensuit, prolegomenis munivit et annotationibus auxit. The corpus canonum consists of the Apostolic Canons, Synodal Canons and Patristic Canons. For its gradual formation and development, see D Wagschal, Law and Legality in the Greek East: the Byzantine canonical tradition, 381–883 (Oxford, 2015), pp 32–50.

22 Despite the fact that, in accordance with the manuscript tradition of the surviving canonical collections, the heading for the Canons of Constantinople (381) mentions seven canons, the Synodikon contains eight, with the last being in fact a ‘synopsis’ of the second part of Canon 7. Moreover, the Address of the Council to Emperor Theodosius the Great is not included in the Synodikon. The Canons of Ephesus are accompanied by the Council's letter to the Synod in Pamphylia, the Canons of Trullo by the address of the Council to Emperor Justinian II. Beveridge, Synodikon, vol i, pp 681–727, comprises a paraphrase in Arabic (with its Latin translation by Beveridge) of the canons of the First Council of Nicaea and the First Council of Constantinople, and of Canons 1–27 of Chalcedon, accompanied by introductory historical commentaries (prooemia), also in Arabic (with Latin translation), for the first four ecumenical councils.

23 In the second section of the Synodikon's second volume, Beveridge published the Acts of the last four sessions of the latter council: Beveridge, Synodikon, vol ii, pp 293–305.

24 The Canons of Gangra are accompanied by the synod's letter to the bishops in Armenia. Actually, an excerpt from the Acts of this Synod. The Canons of Carthage are joined by the acts of the synod, four letters (the synod to Boniface I of Rome; the response of Cyril I of Alexandria to the synod; the response of Atticus of Constantinople to the synod; the synod to Celestine I of Rome) and the Nicene Creed. For a comparison between the numbering of the Canons of Carthage in the Synodikon and in the other contemporaneous canonical collections see Pavlos Menevisoglou, ‘Τὸ Συνοδικὸν τοῦ Βευερηγίου (1672)’ (‘The Synodikon of Beveridge (1672)’), in Αἱ ἐκδόσεις τῶν ἱερῶν κανόνων κατὰ τὸν 16ον καὶ 17ον αἰῶνα (1531–1672) (The Editions of Sacred Canons During the 16th and 17th Century (1531–1672)) (Katerini, 2007), pp 131–182 at pp 161–168. The Canons of Constantinople (394) are published immediately after the Canons of Carthage, under a special heading, but, as a consequence of a typographical error, they appears as part of the broader section ‘Canones Concilii Carthaginensis’: Beveridge, Synodikon, vol i, pp 678–680.

25 Normally, the canonical collections contain 92 Canons of Basil the Great. The Synodikon contains 93 canons (vol ii, pp 47–150). This difference is caused by the proemium of Basil's letter to Diodorus being numbered as Canon 87. To these numbered canons, Beveridge added at a later point an excerpt from Basil's letter to the Nicopolitans (vol ii, p 183).

26 For an overview of the Byzantine corpus canonum, see H Ohme, ‘Sources of the Greek canon law to the Quinisext Council (691/2): councils and Church fathers’, in W Hartman and K Pennington (eds), The History of Byzantine and Eastern Canon Law to 1500 (Washington, DC, 2012), pp 24–114.

27 For these three canonists, see S Troianos, ‘Byzantine canon law from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries’, in Hartman and Pennington, History of Byzantine and Eastern Canon Law, pp 170–214 at pp 176–178 (Zonaras), 178–180 (Aristenos) and 180–183 (Balsamon).

28 See D Wagschal, ‘The Byzantine canonical scholia: a case study in reading Byzantine manuscript marginalia’, (2019) 43 Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 24–41 at 32, who mentions that ‘there are approximately 12 manuscripts dated to the ninth and tenth centuries which contain scholia. We can add a few more from (probably) the earlier eleventh century.’ On the systematic twelfth-century commentary, see E Delidimos, ‘Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὴν νέαν ἔκδοσιν’ (‘Introduction to the new edition’), in G Rallis and M Potlis (eds), Σύνταγμα τῶν θείων καὶ ἱερῶν κανόνων τῶν τε ἁγίων καὶ πανευφήμων Ἀποστόλων, καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν Οἰκουμενικῶν Συνόδων καὶ Τοπικῶν καὶ τῶν κατὰ μέρος ἁγίων Πατέρων, ἐκδοθέν, σὺν πλείσταις ἄλλαις τὴν ἐκκλησιαστικὴν κατάστασιν διεπούσαις διατάξεσι, μετὰ τῶν ἀρχαίων ἐξηγητῶν, καὶ διαφόρων ἀναγνωσμάτων (Constitution of the Divine and Sacred Canons of the Holy and All-Laudable Apostles, and of the Sacred Ecumenical Councils and Local Synods and of Part of the Holy Fathers, Published with Many Other Provisions Regulating the Ecclesiastical Situation, with the Ancient Exegetes, and with Various Readings), vol i (reprinted Thessaloniki, 2002; first edition 1852), pp *3–*200, at p *140, who emphasizes that ‘the then drafting of interpretations on the whole corpus of the canons was a new phenomenon, characteristic of the twelfth century’.

29 See a list of manuscripts that contain these commentaries after the text of the canons in J-A-B Mortreuil, Histoire du droit byzantin ou du droit romain dans l'empire d'Orient, depuis la mort de Justinien jusqu'à la prise de Constantinople en 1453, vol iii (Paris, 1847), p 439.

30 The Trebizond Codex of 1311 is preserved today in the library of the Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul, according to J-M Olivier, Répertoire des bibliothèques et des catalogues de manuscrits grecs de Marcel Richard (Turnhout, 1995), p 384 (no 1260). For the Codex, see P Menevisoglou, ‘Ὁ κῶδιξ τῆς Τραπεζοῦντος τοῦ ἔτους 1311’ (‘The Trebizond Codex of the year 1311’), (1982) 3 Ἐκκλησία καὶ Θεολογία (Church and Theology) 193–206. Two copies of the Codex survive today (from 1774 and 1779). The copy of 1774 is preserved in the department of manuscripts of the Library of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, according to S Kyriakides, ‘Χειρόγραφος Νομοκάνων τοῦ Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης’ (‘A manuscript nomocanon of the University of Thessaloniki’), in Ἐπιστημονικὴ Ἐπετηρὶς Σχολῆς Νομικῶν καὶ Οἰκονομικῶν Ἐπιστημῶν Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης (Scientific Yearbook of the School of Legal and Economic Sciences of the University of Thessaloniki), vol viii: Μνημόσυνον Περικλέους Βιζουκίδου (In Memoriam Pericles Vizoukides) (Thessaloniki, 1960–1962), pp 57–78. The copy of 1779 is held in the department of manuscripts of the National Library of Greece (Athens), according to I Sakkelion and A Sakkelion, Κατάλογος τῶν χειρογράφων τῆς Ἐθνικῆς Βιβλιοθήκης τῆς Ἑλλάδος (Catalogue of Manuscripts pf the National Library of Greece) (Athens, 1892), p 249 (no 1372).

See P Menevisoglou, ‘Τὸ ‘χειρόγραφον Τραπεζοῦντος’ (Ἀθηνῶν 1372) τῆς ἐκδόσεως Ράλλη καὶ Ποτλῆ’ (‘The “Trebizond manuscript” (Athens 1372) of the edition of Rhalles and Potles’), in Δύο πολύτιμα χειρόγραφα ἱερῶν κανόνων (Πάτμου 172 – Ἀθηνῶν 1372) (Two Precious Manuscripts of Sacred Canons (Patmos 172–Athens 1372)) (Katerini, 2006), pp 71–139.

31 For the Synopsis of the canons, see S Troianos, ‘Byzantine canon law to 1100’, in Hartmann and Pennington, History of Byzantine and Eastern Canon Law, pp 115–169 at pp 120–124.

32 See P Menevisoglou, ‘Συνόψεις καὶ ἐπιτομαὶ ἱερῶν κανόνων ἐν Βυζαντίῳ’ (‘Synopses and epitomes of sacred canons in Byzantium’’, in Μνήμη Μητροπολίτου Ἰκονίου Ἰακώβου (In Memory of Metropolitan Iakovos of Iconium) (Athens, 1984), pp 77–95 at pp 78–79.

33 One of the most significant revisions of the first edition of the Synopsis took place in the tenth century and is attributed to the magistrate and lawmaker Symeon. See A Christophilopoulos, ‘Ἡ “κανονικὴ σύνοψις” καὶ ὁ Συμεὼν ὁ Μεταφραστὴς’ (‘The “Canonical Synopsis” and Symeon Metaphrastes’), in Ἐπετηρὶς Ἐταιρείας Βυζαντινῶν Σπουδῶν (Yearbook of the Society of Byzantine Studies), vol 19 (Athens, 1949), 155–157. This revised edition was further expanded towards the end of the eleventh century. See Troianos, ‘Byzantine canon law to 1100’, p 124.

34 With the exception of the Canon of Amphilochios of Iconium, for which no commentary of Balsamon was included, and the Canons of Gregory of Nyssa, Timothy of Alexandria, Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory of Nazianzus, Amphilochius of Iconium and Gennadius of Constantinople, for which no scholia by Zonaras were included.

35 Beveridge, Synodikon, vol i, pp i–xxiv, and vol ii, pp 1–230. For the ‘wise’ annotationes, see N Milasch, Τὸ Ἐκκλησιαστικὸν Δίκαιον τῆς Ὀρθοδόξου Ἀνατολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας (The Ecclesiastical Law of the Eastern Orthodox Church), trans M Apostolopoulos (Athens, 1906), p 282, n 8: ‘σοφὰς σημειώσεις’.

36 Beveridge, Synodikon, vol i, p xiv: ‘pretiosum juris canonici κειμήλιον’.

37 Ibid, p xix.

38 Beveridge, Synodikon vol i, pp xiii–xiv (Balsamon), pp xvi–xvii (Zonaras). The relevant publications were, for Balsamon, Canones SS. Apostolorum, conciliorum generalium et provincialium, sanctorum partum epistolae canonicae, quibus praefixus est, Photii Constantinopolitani patriarchae, Nomocanon, id est canonum et legum imperatoriarum conciliatio, et in certos titulos distributio, omnia commentariis amplissimis Theodori Balsamonis Antiocheni Patriarchae explicata, et de graecis conversa Gentiano Herveto interprete, e Bibliotheca R.D.Io. Tilii, Briocensis episcopi, accessit hac editione graecus textus ex codicibus manuscriptis erutus, et cum latino locis innumeris emendato comparatus (Paris, 1620) and, for Zonaras, Part I: Joannis Zonarae monachi, In canones SS. Apostolorum et sacrorum conciliorum, tam oecumenicorum quam provincialium, commentarii, a viris doctissimis latinitate donati et annotationibus illustrati, nunc primum ex regis christianissimi et aliarum regni eius bibliothecarum codicibus graece ac latine coniunctim editi. Adiectum et concilium Constantinopolitanum sub Menna patriarcha, una cum Constitutionibus Apostolorum, utraque lingua partier ex iisdem libris erutum (Paris, 1618); Part II: SS. PP. Gregorii Neocaesariensis episc. cognomento Thaumaturgi, Macarii Aegyptii, et Basilii Seleuciae Isauriae episcopi, Opera omnia, quae reperiri potuerunt. Nunc primum Graecè et Latinè coniunctim edita, cum indicibus necessarijs. Accessit Ioannis Zonarae Expositio Canonicarum Epistolarum reliquarum canonum Commentario subiungenda (Paris, 1621), 1–114 (of the Appendix, ‘Expositio canonicarum epistolarum sanctorum partum elaborate per Ioannem monachum Zonaram, qui fuit olim magnus drungarius biglae et primus a secretis. Antonio Salmatia Collegii Ambrosiani doctore theologo interprete’).

39 Beveridge, Synodikon, vol i, pp 596–598 (63), 637–639 (104), 645–646 (112), following Canones SS. Apostolorum, 686–688 (63), 724–725 (104), 729–731 (112).

40 Beveridge, Synodikon, vol ii, p 1; Canones SS. Apostolorum, p 879.

41 A late sixth-century collection of canons and secular legislation on ecclesiastical matters. The (non-surviving) first edition of the Syntagma consisted of three parts: the first part was a thematic index, where the canons were classified, without their text, under 14 topic headings (‘titles’, as indicated by the collection's name) and each of the 14 titles was further divided into chapters; the second part contained the full text of the canons; the third part included excerpts of the related civil legislation that dealt with Church matters. In the early seventh century, the first revision of the Syntagma took place and it was turned into a Nomocanon with the addition of the civil provisions (νόμοι, ‘laws’) from the third part, without their text, to the chapters of the 14 titles with the canons (κανόνες) in the first part of the collection. This addition rendered inapplicable the third part of the Syntagma. In its subsequent revisions and expansions in 883 and 1089–1090, it consisted of two parts: the systematic part with the classification of the canons and civil laws under the 14 titles, and the full text of the holy and sacred canons. See P Menevisoglou, Ἱστορικὴ εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τοὺς κανόνας τῆς Ὀρθοδόξου Ἐκκλησίας (A Historical Introduction to the Canons of the Orthodox Church) (Stockholm, 1990), pp 55–73. For other editions of the canons, see Nomocanon Photii patriarchae Constantinopolitani cum commentariis Theodori Balsamonis patriarchae Antiocheni. Christophorus Justellus ex bibliotheca Palatina nunc primum graece edidit. Accessere ejusdem Photii, Nili metropolitae Rhodi et Anonymi tractatus de synodis oecumenicis ex Bibliotheca Sedanensi ab eodem Justello nunc primum graece editi, 2 vols (Paris, 1615) (vol i: Greek text; vol ii: Latin translation); Bibliotheca juris canonici veteris in duos tomos distributa, quorum unus canonum ecclesiasticorum codices antiquos, tum graecos tum latinos complectitur, subjunctis vetustissimis eorumdem canonum collectoribus latinis, alter vero insigniores juris canonici veteris collectores graecos exhibet, ex antiquis codicibus mss. bibliothecae Christophori Justelli. Horum major pars nunc primum in lucem prodit, cum versionibus latinis, praefationibus, notis et indicibus huic editioni necessariis. Opera et studio Gulielmi Voelli, Theologi ac Socii Sorbonici, et Henrici Justelli, Christophori F., 2 vols (Paris, 1661), vol ii, 785–1140 (Greek text with Latin translation)

42 Beveridge, Synodikon, vol ii, pp 1–272 (original Greek text with Latin translation). The Alphabetical Syntagma is a very significant fourteenth-century canonical collection in the form of an alphabetically arranged encyclopaedia of ecclesiastical law, divided, in accordance with the letters of the Greek alphabet, into 24 sections, subdivided into chapters. See Troianos, ‘Byzantine Canon Law from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries’, pp 185–187. The protheoria is a preface containing the history of the sources of canon law and of civil law on ecclesiastical matters. Despite various attempts by other scholars during the seventeenth century, the Synodikon contains the first full printed edition of the Syntagma. For Blastares, see P Paschos, Ὁ Ματθαῖος Βλάσταρης καὶ τὸ ὑμνογραφικὸν ἔργον του (Matthew Blastares and His Hymnographical Work) (Thessaloniki, 1978).

43 Beveridge, Synodikon vol i, p xvii.

44 Ibid, pp 334–336, 339, 341, 344, 346–347, 349–355, 358–359 (Primasecunda); 361–364 (Hagia Sophia).

45 The Syndikon was translated into Russian around the end of the seventeenth century and beginning of the eighteenth, but these translations were never published. See Ivan Žužek, Kormcaja Kniga: Studies on the Chief Code of Russian Canon Law (Rome, 1964), pp 56–59.

46 Agapios and Nicodemos, Πηδάλιον τῆς νοητῆς νηός, τῆς μιᾶς, ἁγίας, καθολικῆς καὶ ἀποστολικῆς τῶν Ὀρθοδόξων Ἐκκλησίας (The Rudder of the Noetic Ship of the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of the Orthodox), first edition (Leipzig, 1800). For Agapios, see L Petit, ‘Le canoniste Agapios Leonardos’, (1899) 2 Échos d'Orient 204–206. See also P Menevisoglou, ‘Ὁ ἱερομόναχος Ἀγάπιος Λεονάρδος (1741–1815)’ (‘The hieromonk Agapios Leonardos (1741–1815)’), (1996) 3 Ἡ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς Ἀνατολὴ (Our East) 27–47. For Nicodemos, see N Russell, ‘Nikodemus the Haghiorite’, in A Casiday (ed), The Orthodox Christian World (Abingdon and New York, 2012), pp 318–324.

47 In Agapios and Nicodemos, Pedalion, p ς, the editors mention that they undertook the edition of this collection mainly in order to ‘enrich’ both the ‘erudite and learned’ and the ‘simple and unlearned’ ‘with a book which is difficult to find, due to the existence of only few printed copies of it, and even harder for the common man to obtain, due to its high cost’. The book in question was the Synodikon. They also comment that ‘We hastened to find the books of the sacred Pandects, and from there, not only to transcribe the entire and integral Greek text of the divine Canons verbatim, but also to expound into this simpler dialect, the true and Greek interpretations of the authentic and approved by the Church exegetes of the Divine and sacred Canons.’

48 See P Menevisoglou, ‘Αἱ κανονικαὶ καὶ νομικαὶ πηγαὶ τοῦ Πηδαλίου’ (‘The canonical and legal sources of the Pedalion’, (2003) 10 Ὀρθοδοξία (Orthodoxy) 725–742 at 725–732.

49 See this report in P Menevisoglou, ‘Ἡ εἰσηγητικὴ ἔκθεσις τοῦ ἱερομονάχου Δωροθέου Βουλησμᾶ περὶ τοῦ Πηδαλίου’ (‘The recommendation report of hieromonk Dorotheos Voulismas on the Pedalion’), in Τὸ Πηδάλιον καὶ ἄλλαι ἐκδόσεις ἱερῶν κανόνων κατὰ τὸν 18ον αἰῶνα (The Pedalion and Other Editions of Sacred Canons during the Eighteenth Century) (Katerini, 2008), pp 243–286 at 256–258. References to Beveridge and the ‘Pandects’ occur on pp 266 (twice), 267, 268, 269, 270 and 271 (twice).

50 Agapios and Nicodemos, Pedalion, p 367: ‘But we remind the readers that the number assigned to the canons by the exegetes has been mistakenly inserted by the typographers, both in the Pandects and in Balsamon’.

51 Milasch, Τὸ Ἐκκλησιαστικὸν Δίκαιον, p 282, n 2. See also Delidimos, ‘Εἰσαγωγὴ’, p *190: ‘the “Synodikon” of Beveridge remained the most complete edition of all’.

52 G Rallis and M Potlis (eds), Σύνταγμα τῶν θείων καὶ ἱερῶν κανόνων τῶν τε ἁγίων καὶ πανευφήμων Ἀποστόλων, καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν Οἰκουμενικῶν Συνόδων καὶ Τοπικῶν καὶ τῶν κατὰ μέρος ἁγίων Πατέρων, ἐκδοθέν, σὺν πλείσταις ἄλλαις τὴν ἐκκλησιαστικὴν κατάστασιν διεπούσαις διατάξεσι, μετὰ τῶν ἀρχαίων ἐξηγητῶν, καὶ διαφόρων ἀναγνωσμάτων (Constitution of the Divine and Sacred Canons of the Holy and All-laudable Apostles, and of the Sacred Ecumenical Councils and Local Synods and of Part of the Holy Fathers, Published with Many Other Provisions Regulating the Ecclesiastical Situation, with the Ancient Exegetes, and with Various Readings), 6 vols (Athens, 1852–1859). For this publication, see P Menevisoglou, ‘Τὸ Σύνταγμα Ράλλη καὶ Ποτλῆ (1852–1859)’ (‘The Syntagma of Rallis and Potlis (1852–1859)’), in Τὸ Σύνταγμα Ράλλη καὶ Ποτλῆ καὶ ἄλλαι ἐκδόσεις ἱερῶν κανόνων κατὰ τὸν 19ον καὶ 20ὸν αἰῶνα (The Syntagma of Rallis and Potlis and Other Editions of Sacred Canons during the 19th and 20th Centuries) (Katerini, 2009), pp 19–79. Rallis was a professor of commercial law and President of the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court of Greece (the Areopagus). Potlis was a professor of ecclesiastical law and the Greek Minister of Justice. For more on the two editors, see S Troianos, ‘Ράλλης και Ποτλής’ (‘Rallis and Potlis’), in N Oikonomides (ed), Το Βυζάντιο κατά τον 12ο αιώνα: Κανονικό Δίκαιο, κράτος και κοινωνία (Byzantium in the 12th Century: Canon Law, State and Society) (Athens, 1991), pp 17–24.

53 Milasch, Τὸ Ἐκκλησιαστικὸν Δίκαιον, 2p 79.

54 Rallis and Potlis, Σύνταγμα vol i, p ι; Letter of 25 April 1852, and Prot no 2243 in ibid, vol ii, np: ‘printing of Beveridge's Synodikon’.

55 Ibid, vol i, p θ.

56 Ibid.

57 Cowie, ‘Beveridge, William (1637–1708)’.

58 The examples offered in this section are taken from Bliss, Theological Works of William Beveridge, vol i, Sermons.

59 Ibid, p 2, Sermon i, ‘Christ's presence with his ministers’, esp pp 9, 13–16.

60 Godolphin, Repertorium Canonicum, pp 34, 63.

61 Bliss, Theological Works of William Beveridge, vol i, p 26, Sermon ii, ‘The institution of ministers’, at p 46.

62 Ibid, p 58, Sermon iv, ‘Salvation in the Church only’, at p 79, see also pp 80–81: Beveridge sets out the historical foundations of this in the Roman civil law (eg the Code and Novels of Justinian), in the canons of the early councils (eg the Fourth General Council at Chalcedon), the ‘canon law’ of ‘the Romish Church’ and the Canons Ecclesiastical of 1603 (here he discusses Canons 127 and 134).

63 Helmholz, Profession of Ecclesiastical Lawyers, pp 18–20.

64 J Prideaux, A Synopsis of Councils (Oxford, 1654, and later editions, eg 1674, 1681), pp 34–35; he adds: ‘It is not to be expected therefore that the Protestants should be obliged by the Tridentine decrees.’

65 E Gibson, Codex Juris Anglicani (London, 1713), pp 155–156, at 156, marginal note ‘Beveridge. Pandect. t. 2. Ancyr. 13’.

66 For Jean Daillé see also above, n 8.

67 J Ayliffe, Parergon Juris Canonici Anglicani (London, 1726), ‘An historical introduction’, pp iv–v. Haloander, a German civilian (1501–1531), wrote Modus legendi abbreviaturas passim in iure tam civili, quam pontificio occurrentes (Rome, 1623). Ayliffe also cites Beveridge, eg at p xiii, ‘Bev. Prolog. SS. 26; iv’ and, for the early canons, Mastricht (p xiii) and Cave (p xvii).

68 Stephens, A, A Practical Treatise of the Law Relating to the Clergy, 2 vols (London, 1848)Google Scholar, vol i, p 152: ‘Beveridge, Pandects Canonum’; the note on p 152 cites ‘Cave, Prim. Christ, par. 1. p 224; Beveridge, Pandect. t. 2. Ancyr. 13’ (the latter is the same reference as in Gibson – see above, n 66). Ayliffe likewise cites Cave (above, 68).

69 Owen, R, Institutes of Canon Law (London, 1884)Google Scholar, p 5; see also notes on eg p 23, ‘Beveregii Synodicon, I. 357’; p 30, ‘Balsamon apud Bevereg. Synodic. T. I. p 88; p 31, ‘Zonaras, apud Bevereg. Synodic. I. 135’; p 46, ‘Balsamon, ap. Bevereg. Synodic. I. p 538’; p 50, ‘Bevereg. Synodic. I. 179’; and p 135, on Trullo, ‘Beveregii Synodic. I. 243’.

70 Phillimore, R, Ecclesiastical Law, second edition, 2 vols (London, 1895)Google Scholar, vol ii, p 1525: ‘Beveridge, Pand. Proleg. ii’.

71 He does not appear in the index of either Baker, J, Monuments of Endlesse Labours: English Canonists and Their Work, 1300–1900 (London, 1998)Google Scholar, or Helmholz, Profession of Ecclesiastical Lawyers.