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Multivariate Markov chain models have previously been proposed in for studying dependent multiple categorical data sequences. For a given multivariate Markov chain model, an important problem is to study its joint stationary distribution. In this paper, we use two techniques to present some perturbation bounds for the joint stationary distribution vector of a multivariate Markov chain with s categorical sequences. Numerical examples demonstrate the stability of the model and the effectiveness of our perturbation bounds.
Directly after the Great East Japan disaster, various acts for mutual aid among victims and also between victims and non-victims spread out in different places throughout Japan. This paper presents a mathematical formulation of social capital regarded as existing as the background to these actions, with application to refuge phenomena in the aftermath of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant.
The Bay of Bengal is surrounded by coastline except to the south, where there is open sea. The coastline bends most sharply along the coast of Bangladesh, and there are many small and large islands in the off shore region there. In order to incorporate the island boundaries and the curved coastline properly, in any numerical scheme it is often necessary to consider a very fine grid resolution along the coastal belts whereas this is unnecessary away from the coasts. However, a very fine resolution involves more memory and more CPU time in the numerical solution process, and invites numerical instability. On the other hand, boundary-fitted curvilinear grids in hydrodynamic models for coastal seas, bays and estuaries not only fit to the coastline but also render the finite difference schemes simpler and more accurate. In this article, the boundary-fitted curvilinear grids for the model represent the complete boundary of the area considered by four curves defined by four functions, and the four boundaries of two of the larger islands are then represented approximately by two general functions. An appropriate independent coordinate transformation maps the curvilinear physical area to a square domain, and each island boundary is transformed to a rectangle within this square domain. The vertically integrated shallow water equations are transformed to the new space domain, and solved by a regular explicit finite difference scheme. The model is applied to compute the water levels due to astronomical tides, and also the water levels due to surges associated with tropical storms that hit the coast of Bangladesh.
An efficient numerical method is proposed for the solution of Love's integral equation
where c > 0 is a small parameter, by using a sinc Nyström method based on a double exponential transformation. The method is derived using the property that the solution ƒ(x) of Love's integral equation satisfies ƒ (x) → 0.5 for x ∈ (−1, 1) when the parameter c → 0. Numerical results show that the proposed method is very efficient.
In this paper, stabilized Crank-Nicolson/Adams-Bashforth schemes are presented for the Allen-Cahn and Cahn-Hilliard equations. It is shown that the proposed time discretization schemes are either unconditionally energy stable, or conditionally energy stable under some reasonable stability conditions. Optimal error estimates for the semi-discrete schemes and fully-discrete schemes will be derived. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the theoretical results.