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Psychological Effects of COVID-19 Among Health Care Workers, and How They Are Coping: A Web-Based, Cross-Sectional Study During the First Wave of COVID-19 in Pakistan

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 January 2022

Muhammad Salman*
Affiliation:
Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Zia Ul Mustafa
Affiliation:
Department of Pharmacy Services, District Headquarter Hospital, Pakpattan, Pakistan
Muhammad Husnnain Raza
Affiliation:
Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Tahir Mehmood Khan
Affiliation:
Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia
Noman Asif
Affiliation:
Punjab University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Humera Tahir
Affiliation:
Ruth Pfau College of Nutrition Sciences, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan
Naureen Shehzadi
Affiliation:
Punjab University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Sakaka, Al-Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Yusra Habib Khan
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Sakaka, Al-Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Kishwar Sultana
Affiliation:
Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Fahad Saleem
Affiliation:
Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
Khalid Hussain
Affiliation:
Punjab University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
*
Corresponding author: Muhammad Salman, Emails: msk5012@gmail.com or muhammad.salman@pharm.uol.edu.pk

Abstract

Objective:

The aim of this study is to ascertain the psychological impacts of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among the Pakistani health care workers (HCWs) and their coping strategies.

Methods:

This web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs (N = 398) from Punjab Province of Pakistan. The generalized anxiety scale (GAD-7), patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), and Brief-COPE were used to assess anxiety, depression, and coping strategies, respectively.

Results:

The average age of respondents was 28.67 years (SD = 4.15), with the majority being medical doctors (52%). Prevalences of anxiety and depression were 21.4% and 21.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in anxiety and depression scores among doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. Females had significantly higher anxiety (P = 0.003) and depression (P = 0.001) scores than males. Moreover, frontline HCWs had significantly higher depression scores (P = 0.010) than others. The depression, not anxiety, score was significantly higher among those who did not receive the infection prevention training (P = 0.004). The most frequently adopted coping strategies were religious coping (M = 5.98, SD = 1.73), acceptance (M = 5.59, SD = 1.55), and coping planning (M = 4.91, SD = 1.85).

Conclusion:

A considerable proportion of HCWs are having generalized anxiety and depression during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings call for interventions to mitigate mental health risks in HCWs.

Type
Brief Report
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc.

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