Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-m9kch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-30T23:13:46.727Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Burnout Among Medical Rescue Workers 4 Years After the Great East Japan Earthquake: A Longitudinal Study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 May 2016

Yuzuru Kawashima
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, National Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa, Japan Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
Daisuke Nishi
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, National Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa, Japan
Hiroko Noguchi
Affiliation:
School of Distance Learning, Musashino University, Mitaka, Japan
Masato Usuki
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, National Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa, Japan
Akihiro Yamashita
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, National Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa, Japan
Yuichi Koido
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Institute, National Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa, Japan
Yoshiro Okubo
Affiliation:
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
Yutaka J. Matsuoka*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, National Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa, Japan Clinical Research Institute, National Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa, Japan Division of Health Care Research, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Chuo-ku, TokyoJapan.
*
Correspondence and reprint requests to Yutaka Matsuoka, MD, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, National Disaster Medical Center, 3256 Midoricho, Tachikawa 190-0014, Japan (e-mail: matsuoka-psy@umin.ac.jp)

Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and burnout 4 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake among medical rescue workers in Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs).

Methods

We examined participants’ background characteristics, prior health condition, rescue work experiences, and the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) score at 1 month after the earthquake. Current psychological condition was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and Maslach Burnout Inventory administered 4 years after the earthquake. By applying univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, we assessed the relative value of the PDI and other baseline variables for PTSD symptoms and burnout at 4 years after the earthquake.

Results

We obtained baseline data from 254 participants during April 2 to 22, 2011. Of the 254 participants, 188 (74.0%) completed the follow-up assessment. PDI score 1 month after the earthquake was associated with symptoms of PTSD (β=0.35, P<.01) and burnout (β=0.21, P<.01). Stress before deployment was a related factor for burnout 4 years after the earthquake in these medical rescue workers (β=2.61, P<.04).

Conclusions

It seems important for DMAT headquarters to establish a routine system for assessing the PDI of medical rescue workers after deployment and screen those workers who have high stress prior to deployment (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:848–853)

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. National Police Agency (English IndexPage). Title. Japan website. https://www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/higaijokyo_e.pdf. Updated March 10, 2016. Accessed May 11, 2016.Google Scholar
2. Benedek, DM, Fullerton, C, Ursano, RJ. First responders: mental health consequences of natural and human-made disasters for public health and public safety workers. Annu Rev Publ Health. 2007;28:55-68.Google Scholar
3. Norris, FH, Friedman, MJ, Watson, PJ, et al. 60,000 disaster victims speak: part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981-2001. Psychiatry. 2002;65(3):207-239.Google Scholar
4. Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ, Wang, L. Acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in disaster or rescue workers. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(8):1370-1376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5. Jayasinghe, N, Giosan, C, Evans, S, et al. Anger and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster: one-year follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008;196(11):844-846.Google Scholar
6. Ask, E, Gudmundsdottir, D. A longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress symptoms and their predictors in rescue workers after a firework factory disaster. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2014;16(2):316-321.Google Scholar
7. van der Velden, PG, Kleber, RJ, Koenen, KC. Smoking predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms among rescue workers: a prospective study of ambulance personnel involved in the Enschede Fireworks Disaster. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;94(1-3):267-271.Google Scholar
8. Nishi, D, Koido, Y, Matsuoka, Y, et al. Peritraumatic distress, watching television, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among rescue workers after the Great East Japan earthquake. PloS One. 2012;7(4):e35248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Piergiorgio, A, Ilaria, S. Engagement and vicarious traumatization in rescue workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011;84:67-75.Google Scholar
10. Li, X, Guan, L, Chang, H, et al. Core self-evaluation and burnout among nurses: the mediating role of coping styles. PloS One. 2014;9(12):e115799.Google Scholar
11. Mohammadpoorasi, A, Maleki, A, Sahebihagh, MH. Prevalence of professional burnout and its related factors among nurses in Tabriz in 2010. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2012;17(7):524-529.Google Scholar
12. Yasuaki, S, Shigeru, C, Eiji, Y, et al. Job stress and burnout among urban and rural hospital physicians in Japan. Aust J Rural Health. 2013;21:225-231.Google Scholar
13. Matsuoka, Y, Nishi, D, Nakaya, N, et al. Attenuating posttraumatic distress with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids among disaster medical assistance team members after the Great East Japan Earthquake: the APOP randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:132.Google Scholar
14. Epstein, RS, Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ. Posttraumatic stress disorder following an air disaster: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155(7):934-938.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Schlenger, WE, Caddell, JM, Ebert, L, et al. Psychological reactions to terrorist attacks: findings from the National Study of Americans' Reactions to September 11. JAMA. 2002;288(5):581-588.Google Scholar
16. Brunet, A, Weiss, DS, Metzler, TJ, et al. The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory: a proposed measure of PTSD criterion A2. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(9):1480-1485.Google Scholar
17. Nishi, D, Matsuoka, Y, Noguchi, H, et al. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009;31(1):75-79.Google Scholar
18. Weiss, DS. The impact of event scale-revised. In: Wilson JP, Keane TM, eds. Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. New York: The Guilford Press; 2004:168-189.Google Scholar
19. Asukai, N, Kato, H, Kawamura, N, et al. Reliability and validity of the Japanese-language version of the impact of event scale-revised (IES-R-J): four studies of different traumatic events. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2002;190(3):175-182.Google Scholar
20. Maslach, C, Jackson, SE. The measurement of experienced burnout. J Occup Behav. 1981;2:99-113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. Kubo, M, Tao, M. The measurement of burnout. Jpn Psychol Rev. 1992;35:361-376.Google Scholar
22. Ozer, EJ, Best, SR, Lipsey, TL, et al. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2003;129(1):52-73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Brewin, CR, Andrews, B, Valentine, JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68(5):748-766.Google Scholar
24. Jehel, L, Paterniti, S, Brunet, A, et al. Peritraumatic distress prospectively predicts PTDS symptoms in assault victims. Encephale. 2006;32(6 pt 1):953-956.Google Scholar
25. Skogstad, L, Toien, K, Hem, E, et al. Psychological distress after physical injury: a one-year follow-up study of conscious hospitalised patients. Injury. 2014;45(1):289-298.Google Scholar
26. Landsbergis, PA. Occupational stress among health care workers: a test of the job demands-control model. J Organ Behav. 1988;9:217-239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar