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Parents still matter! Parental warmth predicts adolescent brain function and anxiety and depressive symptoms 2 years later

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 February 2020

Rosalind D. Butterfield*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Jennifer S. Silk
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Kyung Hwa Lee
Affiliation:
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
Greg S. Siegle
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Ronald E. Dahl
Affiliation:
School of Public Health, University of California–Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
Erika E. Forbes
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Neal D. Ryan
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Jill M. Hooley
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Cecile D. Ladouceur
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
*Corresponding
Author for Correspondence: Rosalind D. Butterfield, MS, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 210 S. Bouquet St., Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Email: rde11@pitt.edu

Abstract

Anxiety is the most prevalent psychological disorder among youth, and even following treatment, it confers risk for anxiety relapse and the development of depression. Anxiety disorders are associated with heightened response to negative affective stimuli in the brain networks that underlie emotion processing. One factor that can attenuate the symptoms of anxiety and depression in high-risk youth is parental warmth. The current study investigates whether parental warmth helps to protect against future anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents with histories of anxiety and whether neural functioning in the brain regions that are implicated in emotion processing and regulation can account for this link. Following treatment for anxiety disorder (Time 1), 30 adolescents (M age = 11.58, SD = 1.26) reported on maternal warmth, and 2 years later (Time 2) they participated in a functional neuroimaging task where they listened to prerecorded criticism and neutral statements from a parent. Higher maternal warmth predicted lower neural activation during criticism, compared with the response during neutral statements, in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, subgenual anterior cingulate (sgACC), right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. Maternal warmth was associated with adolescents’ anxiety and depressive symptoms due to the indirect effects of sgACC activation, suggesting that parenting may attenuate risk for internalizing through its effects on brain function.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2020

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Parents still matter! Parental warmth predicts adolescent brain function and anxiety and depressive symptoms 2 years later
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Parents still matter! Parental warmth predicts adolescent brain function and anxiety and depressive symptoms 2 years later
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Parents still matter! Parental warmth predicts adolescent brain function and anxiety and depressive symptoms 2 years later
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