Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-dz7l6 Total loading time: 0.307 Render date: 2021-09-25T04:38:19.235Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Maternal warmth as a protective factor against risks associated with peer rejection among children

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 October 2008

Charlotte J. Patterson*
Affiliation:
University of Virginia
Deborah A. Cohn
Affiliation:
University of Virginia
Barbara T. Kao
Affiliation:
University of Virginia
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: Charlotte Patterson, Department of Psychology, Gilmer Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.

Abstract

This study examined the relationship among children's sociometric status, qualities of mother-child interaction, and children's adjustment in first grade. Eighty-one 6-year-old children and their mothers participated in laboratory play interactions the summer before the children entered first grade. The interactions were coded later for warmth and control on the part of both mother and child. During the fall, the first graders were given individual sociometric interviews, and children were classified as popular, average, neglected, and rejected. During the spring, teacher ratings of child behavior problems and child competence were collected. Results showed that although maternal warmth and children's sociometric status were unrelated, both were significantly related to behavior problems and competencies in school. Children who were rejected by their peers and whose interactions with their mothers were low in warmth were rated by teachers as having more behavior problems and as less competent in certain respects than other rejected children; the children characterized by peer rejection and low maternal warmth also gave self-reports of their own social acceptance and cognitive competence that were more discrepant from objective information than did other rejected children. These effects either did not occur or were less pronounced within the group of children who were not rejected by their peers. Results were thus consistent with the idea that high maternal warmth served as a protective factor against adjustment difficulties associated with peer rejection.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1989

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 4388.Google ScholarPubMed
Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4 (1, Pt.2).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumrind, D., & Black, A. E. (1967). Socialization practices associated with dimensions of competence in preschool boys and girls. Child Development, 38, 291327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bierman, K. L. (1987). The clinical significance and assessment of poor peer relations: Peer neglect versus peer rejection. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 8, 233240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 110.Google ScholarPubMed
Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978). The social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Brown, G. W., Harris, T., & Bifulco, A. (1986). Long-term effects of early loss of parent. In Rutter, M., Izard, C. E., & Read, P. B. (Eds.), Depression in young people: Developmental and clinical perspectives (pp. 251296). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Buss, A., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Carlson, C. L., Lahey, B. B., & Neeper, R. (1984). Peer assessment of the social behavior of accepted, rejected, and neglected children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 187198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D. (1984). The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D. (in press). An historical perspective on the discipline of developmental psychopathology. In Rolf, J., Masten, A., Cicchetti, D., Neuchterlein, K., & Weintraub, S. (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Cohn, D. A. (1988). Security of attachment at 6 years of age and peer social competence in first grade. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia.Google Scholar
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1983). Continuities and changes in children's status: A 5 year longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29, 261281.Google Scholar
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1986, 08). Hostile and instrumentally aggressive children: A social information processing perspective. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1988). Multiple sources of data on social behavior and social status in the school: A cross-age comparison. Child Development, 59, 815829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (in press). Peer group behavior and social status. In Asher, S. R. & Coie, J. D. (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood: Origins, consequences, and intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Dodge, K. A. (1983). Behavioral antecedents of peer social status. Child Development, 54, 13861399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
French, D. C. (1988). Heterogeneity of peer-rejected boys: Aggressive and non-aggressive subtypes. Child Development, 59, 976985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
French, D. C., & Waas, G. A. (1985). Behavior problems of peer-neglected and peer-rejected elementary-age children: Parent and teacher perspectives. Child Development, 56, 246252.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garmezy, N. (1987). Stress, competence, and development. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 159174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gesten, E. L. (1976). A Health Resources Inventory: The development of a measure of the personal and social competence of primary grade children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 775786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harter, S. (1986). Processes underlying the construction, maintenance and enhancement of the self-concept in children. In Suls, J. & Greenwald, A. G. (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Harter, S., & Pike, R. (1984). The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Child Development, 55, 19691982.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hartup, W. W. (1983). Peer relations. In Hetherington, E. M. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 103196). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Hessler, G. L. (1982). Use and interpretation of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery. Hingham, MA: Teaching Resources.Google Scholar
Hymel, S., & Rubin, K. H. (1985). Children with peer relationship and social skills problems: Conceptual, methodological, and developmental issues. In Whitehurst, G. J. (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol. 2, pp. 251297). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
Jay, S. M. (1979). The Jay Scale for Rating Mother–Child Interactions–Experimental Version. Unpublished manuscript, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, Chapel Hill, NC.Google Scholar
Jay, S. M., & Farran, D. C. (1981). The relative efficacy of predicting IQ from mother–child interactions using ratings versus behavioral counts. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3, 165177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohlberg, L., LaCrosse, J., & Ricks, D. (1972). The predictability of adult mental health from childhood behavior. In Wolman, B. (Ed.), Manual of childpsychopathology (pp. 12171284). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (in press). Predicting disorder from peer social problems. In Asher, S. R. & Coie, J. D. (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood: Origins, consequences, and intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kupersmidt, J. B., Patterson, C. J., & Griesler, P. C. (1987, 11). Self-report and objective assessment among rejected, aggressive, and rejected-aggressive children. Paper presented at the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
LaFreniere, P. J., & Sroufe, L. A. (1985). Profiles of peer competence in the preschool: Interrelations between measures, influence of social ecology, and relation to attachment history. Developmental Psychology, 21, 5669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewinsohn, P. M., Mischel, W., Chaplain, W., & Baron, R. (1980). Social competence and depression: The role of illusory self-perceptions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 203212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lorion, R. P., Cowen, E. L., & Caldwell, R. A. (1975). Normative and parametric analyses of school maladjustment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 3, 291302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In Hetherington, E. M. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1101). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
MacDonald, K. (1987). Parent–child physical play with rejected, neglected, and popular boys. Developmental Psychology, 23, 705711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacDonald, K., & Parke, R. D. (1984). Bridging the gap: Parent–child play interactions and peer interactive competence. Child Development, 55, 12651277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masten, A. S., & Garmezy, N. (1985). Risk, vulnerability, and protective factors in developmental psychopathology. In Lahey, B. B. & Kazdin, A. E. (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology, Vol. 8. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parkhurst, J. T., & Asher, S. R. (1987, 04). The social concerns of aggressive-rejected children. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
Patterson, C. J., Kupersmidt, J. B., & Griesler, P. C. (1989). Children's perceptions of self and of relationships with others as a function of sociometric status. Unpublished manuscript, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.Google Scholar
Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Brown, M. M. (1988). Early family experience, social problem solving patterns, and children's social competence. Child Development, 59, 107120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putallaz, M. (1983). Predicting children's sociometric status from their behavior. Child Development, 54, 14171426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putallaz, M. (1987). Maternal behavior and children's social status. Child Development, 58, 324340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roopnarine, J. L., & Adams, G. R. (1987). The interactional teaching patterns of mothers and fathers with their popular, moderately popular, or unpopular children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 125136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, R. (1973). Estimating effective reliabilities in studies that employ judges' ratings. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29, 342345.3.0.CO;2-D>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, K. H., & Daniels-Bierness, T. (1983). Concurrent and predictive correlates of sociometric status in kindergarten and grade 1 children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 12, 337352.Google Scholar
Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children's responses to stress and disadvantage. In Kent, M. W. & Rolf, J. E. (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology, Vol. 3. Social competence in children. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316331.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M., & Giller, H. (1983). Juvenile delinquency: Trends and perspectives. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.Google Scholar
Sroufe, L. A., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 83, 173189.Google Scholar
Sterling, S., Cowen, E. L., Weissberg, R. P., Lotyczewski, B. S., & Boike, M. (1985). Recent stressful life events and young children's school adjustment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 8798.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wasik, B. H. (1987). Sociometric measures and peer descriptors of kindergarten children: A study of reliability and validity. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 16, 218224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Werner, E. E. (1984). Resilient children. Young Children, 41(1), 6872.Google Scholar
Woodcock, R. W. (1978). Development and standardization of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery. Hingham, MA: Teaching Resources.Google Scholar
47
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Maternal warmth as a protective factor against risks associated with peer rejection among children
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Maternal warmth as a protective factor against risks associated with peer rejection among children
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Maternal warmth as a protective factor against risks associated with peer rejection among children
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *