Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-5zgkz Total loading time: 0.275 Render date: 2021-09-22T03:40:03.383Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2014

Leah M. Lozier*
Affiliation:
Georgetown University
John W. Vanmeter
Affiliation:
Georgetown University
Abigail A. Marsh
Affiliation:
Georgetown University
*Corresponding
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Leah M. Lozier, Department of Psychology, Georgetown University, 3700 O Street, Washington, DC 20057; E-mail: lml46@georgetown.edu.

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social impairments, including inappropriate responses to affective stimuli and nonverbal cues, which may extend to poor face-emotion recognition. However, the results of empirical studies of face-emotion recognition in individuals with ASD have yielded inconsistent findings that occlude understanding the role of face-emotion recognition deficits in the development of ASD. The goal of this meta-analysis was to address three as-yet unanswered questions. Are ASDs associated with consistent face-emotion recognition deficits? Do deficits generalize across multiple emotional expressions or are they limited to specific emotions? Do age or cognitive intelligence affect the magnitude of identified deficits? The results indicate that ASDs are associated with face-emotion recognition deficits across multiple expressions and that the magnitude of these deficits increases with age and cannot be accounted for by intelligence. These findings suggest that, whereas neurodevelopmental processes and social experience produce improvements in general face-emotion recognition abilities over time during typical development, children with ASD may experience disruptions in these processes, which suggested distributed functional impairment in the neural architecture that subserves face-emotion processing, an effect with downstream developmental consequences.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. (1994). Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature, 372, 669672. doi:10.1038/372669a0 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Akechi, H., Senju, A., Kikuchi, Y., Tojo, Y., Osanai, H., & Hasegawa, T. (2009). Does gaze direction modulate facial expression processing in children with autism spectrum disorder? Child Development, 80, 11341146. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01321.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Akechi, H., Senju, A., Kikuchi, Y., Tojo, Y., Osanai, H., & Hasegawa, T. (2010). The effect of gaze direction on the processing of facial expressions in children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study. Neuropsychologia, 48, 28412851. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.05.026 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.Google ScholarPubMed
*Ashwin, C., Chapman, E., Colle, L., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Impaired recognition of negative basic emotions in autism: A test of the amygdala theory. Social Neuroscience, 1, 349363. doi:10.1080/17470910601040772 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Bal, E., Harden, E., Lamb, D., Van Hecke, A. V., Denver, J. W., & Porges, S. W. (2010). Emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: Relations to eye gaze and autonomic state. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 358370. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0884-3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Balconi, M., Amenta, S., & Ferrari, C. (2012). Emotional decoding in facial expression, scripts and videos: A comparison between normal, autistic and Asperger children. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 193203. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2011.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Baron-Cohen, S., Spitz, A., & Cross, P. (1993). Do children with autism recognise surprise? A research note. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 507516. doi:10.1080/02699939308409202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Jolliffe, T. (1997). Is there a “language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults, and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition, 4, 311331. doi:10.1080/713756761 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blakemore, S. J. (2008). The social brain in adolescence. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 267277. doi:10.1038/nrn2353 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blakemore, S. J., & Choudhury, S. (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: Implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 296312. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01611.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Boraston, Z., Blakemore, S. J., Chilvers, R., & Skuse, D. (2007). Impaired sadness recognition is linked to social interaction deficit in autism. Neuropsychologia, 45, 15011510. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.11.010 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Braverman, M., Fein, D., Lucci, D., & Waterhouse, L. (1989). Affect comprehension in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 301316. doi:10.1007/BF02211848 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Buitelaar, J. K., van der Wees, M., Swaab-Barneveld, H., & van der Gaag, R. J. (1999). Theory of mind and emotion-recognition functioning in autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control and normal children. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 3958. doi:10.1017/S0954579499001947 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Calder, A. J., Keane, J., Manes, F., Antoun, N., & Young, A. W. (2000). Impaired recognition and experience of disgust following brain injury. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 10771078. doi:10.1038/80586 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Camras, L. A., & Allison, K. (1985). Children's understanding of emotional facial expressions and verbal labels. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 9, 8494. doi:10.1007/BF00987140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Castelli, F. (2005). Understanding emotions from standardized facial expressions in autism and normal development. Autism, 9, 428449. doi:10.1177/1362361305056082 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Celani, G., Battacchi, M. W., & Arcidiacono, L. (1999). The understanding of the emotional meaning of facial expressions in people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 5766. doi:10.1023/A:1025970600181 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Clark, T. F., Winkielman, P., & McIntosh, D. N. (2008). Autism and the extraction of emotion from briefly presented facial expressions: Stumbling at the first step of empathy. Emotion, 8, 803809. doi:10.1037/a0014124 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Corden, B., Chilvers, R., & Skuse, D. (2008). Avoidance of emotionally arousing stimuli predicts social-perceptual impairment in Asperger's syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 46, 137147. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.08.005 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courchesne, E., Redcay, E., & Kennedy, D. P. (2004). The autistic brain: Birth through adulthood. Current Opinion in Neurology, 17, 489496. doi:10.1097/01.wco.0000137542.14610.b4 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Critchley, H. D., Daly, E. M., Bullmore, E. T., Williams, S. C., Van Amelsvoort, T., Robertson, D. M., et al. (2000). The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: Changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions. Brain, 123, 22032212. doi:10.1093/brain/123.11.2203 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., et al. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 519526. doi:10.1038/nn1421 Google ScholarPubMed
*Davies, S., Bishop, D., Manstead, A. S., & Tantam, D. (1994). Face perception in children with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 10331057. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01808.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dawel, A., O'Kearney, R., McKone, E., & Palermo, R. (2012). Not just fear and sadness: Meta-analytic evidence of pervasive emotion recognition deficits for facial and vocal expressions in psychopathy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 22882304. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.08.006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., et al. (2004). Early social attention impairments in autism: Social orienting, joint attention, and attention to distress. Developmental Psychology, 40, 271283. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Sonneville, L. M. J., Verschoor, C. A., Njiokiktjien, C., het Veld, V. O., Toorenaar, N., & Vranken, M. (2002). Facial identity and facial emotions: Speed, accuracy, and processing strategies in children and adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 200213. doi:10.1076/jcen.24.2.200.989 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Di Giorgio, E., Leo, I., Pascalis, O., & Simion, F. (2012). Is the face-perception system human-specific at birth? Developmental psychology, 48, 10831090. doi:10.1037/a0026521 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durand, K., Gallay, M., Seigneuric, A., Robichon, F., & Baudouin, J. Y. (2007). The development of facial emotion recognition: The role of configural information. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97, 1427. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2006.12.001 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dyck, M. J., Piek, J. P., Hay, D., Smith, L., & Hallmayer, J. (2006). Are abilities abnormally interdependent in children with autism? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 2033. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3501_3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Dziobek, I., Bahnemann, M., Convit, A., & Heekeren, H. R. (2010). The role of the fusiform–amygdala system in the pathophysiology of autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 397405. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.31 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Dziobek, I., Fleck, S., Rogers, K., Wolf, O. T., & Convit, A. (2006). The “amygdala theory of autism” revisited: Linking structure to behavior. Neuropsychologia, 44, 18911899. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169200. doi:10.1080/02699939208411068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2002). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 203235. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.128.2.203 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gagnon, M., Gosselin, P., Hudon-ven der Buhs, I., Larocque, K., & Milliard, K. (2010). Children's recognition and discrimination of fear and disgust facial expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 34, 2742. doi:10.1007/s10919-009-0076-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gauthier, I., Skudlarski, P., Gore, J. C., & Anderson, A. W. (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 191197. doi:10.1038/72140 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gauthier, I., & Tarr, M. J. (1997). Becoming a ‘‘Greeble’' expert: Exploring mechanisms for face recognition. Vision Research, 37, 16731682. doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(96)00286-6 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gauthier, I., Tarr, M. J., Anderson, A. W., Skudlarski, P., & Gore, J. C. (1999). Activation of the middle fusiform “face area” increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 568573. doi:10.1038/9224 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Gepner, B., Deruelle, C., & Grynfeltt, S. (2001). Motion and emotion: A novel approach to the study of face processing by young autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 3745. doi:10.1023/A:1005609629218 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grelotti, D. J., Gauthier, I., & Schultz, R. T. (2002). Social interest and the development of cortical face specialization: What autism teaches us about face processing. Developmental Psychobiology, 40, 213225. doi:10.1002/dev.10028 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grelotti, D. J., Klin, A. J., Gauthier, I., Skudlarskin, P., Cohen, D. J., Gore, J. C., et al. (2005). fMRI activation of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala to cartoon characters but not to faces in a boy with autism. Neuropsychologia, 43, 373385. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.06.015 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Grossman, J. B., Klin, A., Carter, A. S., & Volkmar, F. R. (2000). Verbal bias in recognition of facial emotions in children with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 369379. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00621 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R. M., Snyder, J., Chabris, C. F., Clark, J., Steele, S., et al. (2004). Activation of the fusiform gyrus when individuals with autism spectrum disorder view faces. NeuroImage, 22, 11411150. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.03.025 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Happé, F., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 525. doi:10.1007/s10803-005-0039-0 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harms, M. B., Martin, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2010). Facial emotion recognition in autism spectrum disorders: A review of behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychology Review, 20, 290322. doi:10.1007/s11065-010-9138-6 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, C. J., Stevenson, R. J., & Coltheart, M. (2007). Disgust and Huntington's disease. Neuropsychologia, 45, 11351151. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.10.015 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herba, C., & Phillips, M. (2004). Annotation: Development of facial expression recognition from childhood to adolescence: Behavioural and neurological perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 11851198. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00316.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herba, C. M., Landau, S., Russell, T., Ecker, C., & Phillips, M. L. (2006). The development of emotion-processing in children: Effects of age, emotion, and intensity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 10981106. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01652.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Howard, M. A., Cowell, P. E., Boucher, J., Broks, P., Mayes, A., Farrant, A., et al. (2000). Convergent neuroanatomical and behavioural evidence of an amygdala hypothesis of autism. NeuroReport, 11, 29312935. doi:10.1097/00001756-200009110-00020 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Hubl, D., Bolte, S., Feineis-Matthews, S., Lanfermann, H., Federspiel, A., Strik, W., et al. (2003). Functional imbalance of visual pathways indicates alternative face processing strategies in autism. Neurology, 61, 12321237. doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000091862.22033.1A CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Humphreys, K., Minshew, N., Leonard, G. L., & Behrmann, M. (2007). A fine-grained analysis of facial expression processing in high-functioning adults with autism. Neuropsychologia, 45, 685695. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.08.003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Jones, C. R. G., Pickles, A., Falcaro, M., Marsden, A. J. S., Happé, F., Scott, S. K., et al. (2011). A multimodal approach to emotion recognition ability in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 275285. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02328.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joseph, R. M., & Tanaka, J. (2003). Holistic and part based face recognition in children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 529542. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00142 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 43024311.Google ScholarPubMed
Leppanen, J. M., & Nelson, C. A. (2009). Tuning the developing brain to social signals of emotions. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 3747. doi:10.1038/nrn2554 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, S., Thoma, R. J., Lanoue, M. D., Miller, G. A., Heller, W., Edgar, C., et al. (2003). Visual processing of facial affect. NeuroReport, 14, 18411845. doi:10.1097/00001756-200310060-00017 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Lindner, J. L., & Rosen, L. A. (2006). Decoding of emotion through facial expression, prosody and verbal content in children and adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 769777. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0105-2 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659685. doi:10.1007/BF02172145 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., et al. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 185212. doi:10.1007/BF02211841 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marsh, A. A., & Blair, R. J. (2008). Deficits in facial affect recognition among antisocial populations: A meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 454465. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.08.003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAlpine, C., Kendall, K. A., & Singh, N. N. (1991). Recognition of facial expressions of emotion by persons with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 96, 2936.Google ScholarPubMed
Mondloch, C. J., Le Grand, R., & Maurer, D. (2002). Configural face processing develops more slowly than featural face processing. Perception, 31, 553566. doi:10.1068/p3339 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mundy, P., Sigman, M., Ungerer, J., & Sherman, T. (1986). Defining the social deficits of autism: The contribution of non verbal communication measures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 657669. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1986.tb00190.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, C. A. (2001). The development and neural bases of face recognition. Infant and Child Development, 10, 318. doi:10.1002/icd.239 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*O'Connor, K. (2007). Brief report: Impaired identification of discrepancies between expressive faces and voices in adults with Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 20082013. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0345-1 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*O'Connor, K., Hamm, J. P., & Kirk, I. J. (2005). The neurophysiological correlates of face processing in adults and children with Asperger's syndrome. Brain and Cognition, 59, 8295. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2005.05.004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ogai, M., Matsumoto, H., Suzuki, K., Ozawa, F., Fukuda, R., Uchiyama, I., et al. (2003). fMRI study of recognition of facial expressions in high-functioning autistic patients. NeuroReport, 14, 559563. doi:10.1097/00001756-200303240-00006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1990). Are there emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 343361. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb01574.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Pelphrey, K. A., Sasson, N. J., Reznick, J. S., Paul, G., Goldman, B. D., & Piven, J. (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 249261. doi:10.1023/A:1016374617369 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Philip, R. C., Whalley, H. C., Stanfield, A. C., Sprengelmeyer, R., Santos, I. M., Young, A. W., et al. (2010). Deficits in facial, body movement and vocal emotional processing in autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Medicine, 40, 19191929. doi:10.1017/S0033291709992364 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Piggot, J., Kwon, H., Mobbs, D., Blasey, C., Lotspeich, L., Menon, V., et al. (2004). Emotional attribution in high-functioning individuals with autistic spectrum disorder: A functional imaging study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 473480. doi:10.1097/00004583-200404000-00014 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramdoss, S., Machalicek, W., Rispoli, M., Mulloy, A., Lang, R., & O'Reilly, M. (2012). Computer-based interventions to improve social and emotional skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 15, 119135. doi:10.3109/17518423.2011.651655 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogol, A. D., Roemmich, J. N., & Clark, P. A. (2002). Growth at puberty. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 192200. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00485-8 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, R., & DiMatteo, M. R. (2001). Meta-analysis: Recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 5982. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.59 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Rosset, D. B., Rondan, C., Da Fonseca, D., Santos, A., Assouline, B., & Deruelle, C. (2008). Typical emotion processing for cartoon but not for real faces in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 919925. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0465-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Rump, K. M., Giovannelli, J. L., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2009). The development of emotion recognition in individuals with autism. Child Development, 80, 14341447. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01343.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Rutherford, M. D., & Towns, A. M. (2008). Scan path differences and similarities during emotion perception in those with and without autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 13711381. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0525-7 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutherford, M. D., & Troje, N. F. (2012). IQ predicts biological motion perception in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 557565. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1267-0 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sasson, N. J. (2006). The development of face processing in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 381394. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0076-3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1986). The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS): For diagnostic screening and classification of autism. New York: Irvington.Google ScholarPubMed
Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 331340. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.4.331 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schultz, R. T., Grelotti, D. J., Klin, A., Kleinman, J., Van der Gaag, C., Marois, R., et al. (2003). The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: Implications for the pathobiology of autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 358, 415427. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1208 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simion, F., Di Giorgio, E., Leo, I., & Bardi, L. (2011). The processing of social stimuli in early infancy: From faces to biological motion perception. Progress in Brain Research, 189, 173193. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53884-0.00024-5 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sparks, B. F., Friedman, S. D., Shaw, D. W., Aylward, E. H., Echelard, D., Artru, A. A., et al. (2002). Brain structural abnormalities in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Neurology, 59, 184192. doi:10.1159/000069322 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Tantam, D., Monaghan, L., Nicholson, H., & Stirling, J. (1989). Autistic children's ability to interpret faces: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 623630. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00274.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tarr, M. J., & Gauthier, I. (2000). FFA: A flexible fusiform area for subordinate-level visual processing automatized by expertise. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 764770. doi:10.1038/77666 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, L. A., De Bellis, M. D., Graham, R., & LaBar, K. S. (2007). Development of emotional facial recognition in late childhood and adolescence. Developmental Science, 10, 547558. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00614.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Tracy, J. L., Robins, R. W., Schriber, R. A., & Solomon, M. (2011). Is emotion recognition impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 102109. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1030-y CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vytal, K., & Hamann, S. (2011). Neuroimaging support for discrete neural correlates of basic emotions: A voxel-based meta-analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 28642885.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker-Andrews, A. S. (1997). Infants' perception of expressive behaviors: Differentiation of multimodal information. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 437456. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.437 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Wallace, G. L., Case, L. K., Harms, M. B., Silvers, J. A., Kenworthy, L., & Martin, A. (2011). Diminished sensitivity to sad facial expressions in high functioning autism spectrum disorders is associated with symptomatology and adaptive functioning. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 14751486. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1170-0 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Wallace, S., Coleman, M., & Bailey, A. (2008). An investigation of basic facial expression recognition in autism spectrum disorders. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 13531380. doi:10.1080/02699930701782153 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Wang, A. T., Dapretto, M., Hariri, A. R., Sigman, M., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2004). Neural correlates of facial affect processing in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 481490. doi:10.1097/00004583-200404000-00015 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Wicker, B., Fonlupt, P., Hubert, B., Tardif, C., Gepner, B., & Deruelle, C. (2008). Abnormal cerebral effective connectivity during explicit emotional processing in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3, 135143. doi:10.1093/scan/nsn007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: Author.Google ScholarPubMed
*Wright, B., Clarke, N., Jordan, J. O., Young, A. W., Clarke, P., Miles, J., et al. (2008). Emotion recognition in faces and the use of visual context in young people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 12, 607626. doi:10.1177/1362361308097118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Lozier Supplementary Material

Table S1 and Figure S1

Download Lozier Supplementary Material(File)
File 108 KB
123
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *