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The effects of the interplay of genetics and early environmental risk on the course of internalizing symptoms from late childhood through adolescence

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 May 2015

Rashelle J. Musci*
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health
Katherine E. Masyn
Harvard University Graduate School of Education
Kelly Benke
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health
Brion Maher
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health
George Uhl
NIH-IRP NIDA Molecular Neurobiology Branch
Nicholas S. Ialongo
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Rashelle J. Musci, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 841, Baltimore, MD 21205; E-mail:


Internalizing symptoms during adolescence and beyond is a major public health concern, particularly because severe symptoms can lead to the diagnosis of a number of serious psychiatric conditions. This study utilizes a unique sample with a complex statistical method in order to explore Gene × Environment interactions found in internalizing symptoms during adolescence. Data for this study were drawn from a longitudinal prevention intervention study (n = 798) of Baltimore city school children. Internalizing symptom data were collected using self-report and blood or saliva samples genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 microarrays. A major depression polygenic score was created for each individual using information from the major depressive disorder Psychiatric Genetics Consortium and used as a predictor in a latent trait–state–occasion model. The major depressive disorder polygenic score was a significant predictor of the stable latent trait variable, which captures time-independent phenotypic variability. In addition, an early childhood stressor of death or divorce was a significant predictor of occasion-specific variables. A Gene × Environment interaction was not a significant predictor of the latent trait or occasion variables. These findings support the importance of genetics on the stable latent trait portion of internalizing symptoms across adolescence.

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