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Childhood trauma and cognitive functioning in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 January 2020

T. Velikonja
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Seaver Center of Research and Treatment, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA
E. Velthorst
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Seaver Center of Research and Treatment, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA
J. Zinberg
Affiliation:
Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and Psychology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California–Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
T. D. Cannon
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
B. A. Cornblatt
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Zucker Hillside Hospital, Queens, NY, USA
D. O. Perkins
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
K. S. Cadenhead
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
M. T. Tsuang
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
J. Addington
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
S. W. Woods
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
T. McGlashan
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
D. H. Mathalon
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California–San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
W. Stone
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
M. Keshavan
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
L. Seidman
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
C. E. Bearden
Affiliation:
Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and Psychology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California–Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Evidence suggests that early trauma may have a negative effect on cognitive functioning in individuals with psychosis, yet the relationship between childhood trauma and cognition among those at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis remains unexplored. Our sample consisted of 626 CHR children and 279 healthy controls who were recruited as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study 2. Childhood trauma up to the age of 16 (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and bullying) was assessed by using the Childhood Trauma and Abuse Scale. Multiple domains of cognition were measured at baseline and at the time of psychosis conversion, using standardized assessments. In the CHR group, there was a trend for better performance in individuals who reported a history of multiple types of childhood trauma compared with those with no/one type of trauma (Cohen d = 0.16). A history of multiple trauma types was not associated with greater cognitive change in CHR converters over time. Our findings tentatively suggest there may be different mechanisms that lead to CHR states. Individuals who are at clinical high risk who have experienced multiple types of childhood trauma may have more typically developing premorbid cognitive functioning than those who reported minimal trauma do. Further research is needed to unravel the complexity of factors underlying the development of at-risk states.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2020

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