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Instructions for authors

Continuity and Change is published three times a year and covers the fields of social structure, law and demography in past societies. It is strongly committed to publishing work accessible to the broadest possible audience. Contributions may be either articles (original pieces of interpretation or empirical research) or review articles (surveys or critiques of broad research topics in the light of recently published work by others, but also presenting authors' own research if appropriate). Review articles should still make an original contribution by presenting a new perspective on the material surveyed. The journal also has a strong commitment to comparative studies over a broad range of cultures and time spans.


Submissions should made online at https://mc.manuscriptcentral.c.... You will need to create an account if you do not have one. (If you are unsure if you have an account, or have forgotten your password, use the password help function.) Please contact a member of the editorial team if you have any questions about the procedure, or wish to make a submission by another means.

Books for review should be sent to Barbara Crosbie, History Department, Durham University, 43 North Bailey, Durham, DH1 3EX, UK. Email:


1. Articles should be no more than 10,000 words, excluding endnotes. The paper must be accompanied by a abstract of no more than 100 words on a separate sheet, also showing the title, each author's name, affiliation, contact details, competing interest declaration (see below for guidance on what this should look like), and the word length of the paper with and without endnotes. The author's name should not be included anywhere else on the paper (except in footnote references), to ensure anonymity when the paper is sent to referees. Similarly, authors should take care that they cannot be identified from endnote references. Where necessary, articles should be divided into subsections designated by Arabic numerals and subtitles. Texts should be double-spaced throughout.

Comments on previously published articles will also be considered, provided they do not exceed 1500 words.

Competing interest declaration: All authors must include a competing interest declaration in the separate sheet they submit. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article. Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations. If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors. Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author A is employed at company B. Author C owns shares in company D, is on the Board of company E and is a member of organisation F. Author G has received grants from company H.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”.

2. Text should be submitted with endnotes not footnotes. The endnotes should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and be double-spaced on separate pages at the end of the text. They should be placed outside punctuation marks. Bibliographical references should be given in full in the endnotes when first cited; thereafter use author surname and short title. Avoid all Latinisms (op. cit., etc.), though 'Ibid.' may be used for citation of a single reference appearing in the preceding endnote. A separate bibliography is not required. The first citation of a book should give: Author's (or Editor's) forename or initials and surname, as specified on the title page; full title in italics (capitals for first word and proper names only); edition (if second or later); place and date of publication (in parentheses); any page number(s).


E. A. Wrigley and R. S. Schofield, The population history of England 1541–1871: a reconstruction (London, 1981).

J. Smith ed., Studies in English internal trade, 2nd edn (London, 1988), 417–30.

Christer Lundh, Swedish marriages: customs, legislation and demography in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Lund Papers in Economic History, 88 (Lund, 2003).

Subsequent citations should give: author's or editor's surname; short title (in italics); page numbers.


Wrigley and Schofield, Population history of England, 447–9.

Essays in edited volumes

The first citation of such an essay should give: Author's forename (or initials) and surname; essay title (in single inverted commas); forenames and surnames of the Editors, full title of the book in italics (capitals for first word and proper names only); edition (if second or later); place and date of publication (in parentheses); page numbers.


Noriko O. Tsuya and Satomi Kurosu, ‘Economic and household covariates of first marriage in early modern Japan, evidence from two northeastern villages, 1716–1870’, in Catharine Caplone and Muriel Neven eds., Family structure, demography and population: a comparison of societies in Asia and Europe (Liège, 2000), 131–57.

Subsequent citations:

Tsuya and Kurosu, ‘Economic and household covariates’, 133–5.

The first citation of an article should give: Author's forename (or initials) and surname; article title (in single inverted commas); journal title in italics (capitalized according to the style of the particular journal); volume number in bold (Arabic or Roman numerals according to the style of the journal in question ); part number (optional); date of publication (in parentheses); page numbers.


Frans van Poppel, ‘Widows, widowers and remarriage in nineteenth-century Netherlands’, Population Studies 49, 3 (1995), 421–41.

Subsequent citation:

Van Poppel, ‘Widows’, 435.

The first citation of a thesis should give: Author's forename (or initials) and surname; title (capitalize as book title, in inverted commas); degree, university and date (in parentheses).


J. B. Post, 'Criminals and the law in the reign of Richard II with special reference to Hampshire' (unpublished D. Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, 1976).

Subsequent citation:

Post, 'Criminals and the law', 53.

The first citation of material from an archive should give the name of the repository in full, with location included. If there are subsequent citations of material from the same repository, an abbreviated reference can be used: e.g. The National Archives, UK (hereafter TNA), DL30.63.790; Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (hereafter BN), MS lat. 5650. Citation of archival material should follow the conventions of the archive in question, but use the following: MS, MSS (pl.); fo., fos.; r (recto), v (verso)

Internet citations

Citations of websites should identify the site and (where applicable) when it was last updated or accessed.


Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, ‘Strouts, Frederick 1834–1919’, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, http// [updated 22 June 2007].

Satomi Kurosu, ‘Divorce and stem-family household organization in early modern Japan’, paper presented at the Population Association of America (Boston, 2004), available on

3. Maps and graphs (which should be referred to as 'figures' in their titles and in the text) and tables should not be included in the manuscript but be submitted, along with their titles and any accompanying notes or references to sources, in files marked 'figures' or 'tables' as appropriate and the text annotated to indicate where they should be placed. Please note figures and maps can only be represented in hardcopy in black and white or in gray scale. Colour figures can only be reproduced online. Tables must be numbered consecutively and referred to in the text as such: '(see Table 1)', not '(see table below)'. The table number and table title should be typed above the body of the table. Please make sure that the title indicates fully and clearly the contents of the table, and includes the geographic area, and time period to which it refers. The title should ‘stand alone’, so that the reader has no reason to refer to the text for clarification. Type a horizontal rule above and below the body of the table and below column headings, but avoid vertical rules. Notes, indicated by raised lower-case letters, and source(s) should be typed below the bottom rule. Notes should include a key to any abbreviations used within the table, and sources should be laid out in full, not in short form. If percentages are cited in the table give '%' as a column heading and do not repeat it within the body of the table. Tables should be in either Word or Excel format.

Figures should be numbered consecutively. Please ensure that your figures are saved at final publication size (110 x 175 mm) and are in our recommended file formats (tiff, jpeg, pdf, Excel or Powerpoint). Please be mindful of how your maps and graphs will look when reproduced at this size. It is the author's responsibility to ensure that typefaces and font sizes are legible.

Figure titles, notes and sources should be laid out as for Tables (see above). Following these guidelines will result in high quality images being reproduced in both the print and the online versions of the journal. If you require any further guidance on creating suitable electronic figures, please visit our guide for authors. Here you will find extensive guidelines on preparing electronic figures.

4. British conventions for spelling and punctuation are followed. Foreign words or phrases in an English sentence should be italicized, except for proper names or quotations and words in common usage, and an English translation provided (either in parentheses or in an endnote). Use single inverted commas for quotations, with double inverted commas only for quotations within quotations. Quotations longer than about 55 words should be broken off from the text and indented from the left-hand margin, without inverted commas. Use words for numbers up to ten, thereafter Arabic numerals, with the exceptions that (a) numbers are used for percentages and fractions, (b) words are used for numbers at the beginning of a sentence and (c) numbers and words should not be mixed, e.g. '9 men and 12 women', rather than 'nine men and 12 women'.

Use '1930s' not '1930's', 'the fourteenth century' not 'the 14th century', 1,000 not 1000, 'per cent' not '%' in main text (although % is acceptable in tables). Spans of numbers should be elided to the smallest unit, e.g. 23–5, 296–8, 216–18. But dates should be in full, e.g. 1914–1918.

5. The journal is published in English and the Editors reserve the right to request authors to meet the costs of major correction to the English that are considered necessary after the articles have been reviewed and resubmitted by the authors. The Editors advise all authors whose native language is not English to have their revised papers read by a native speaker of English who is familiar with the subject area and with academic standards of prose prior to resubmitting their articles.

6. It is the responsibility of contributors to obtain permission to reproduce any material in which they do not hold copyright (illustrations, tables, extensive quotations). Please ensure that the appropriate acknowledgements are included in figure captions, etc. Copies of any permissions correspondence should be sent to the Editor. Submission of an article will be taken to imply that it is unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

7. If the editors or copy-editor have any queries about your article these will be sent to you by email in the form of a list. Please return your answers to the editors or copy-editor within one week of receipt.


Please note that proofs will be sent electronically and email response is required within three days.


Authors of articles published in the journal sign a license to publish with Cambridge University Press (with certain rights reserved). A license to publish form will be forwarded for signature when the proofs are sent out which should be completed and returned to the address given.

Publishing your article as Gold Open Access

You will have the option to publish your article as Gold Open Access, enabling the final published version to be made freely available under a Creative Commons license. You might be required to pay an Article Processing Charge (APC) for Gold Open Access. You may be eligible for a waiver or discount, for example if your institution is part of a Read and Publish sales agreement with Cambridge University Press. For more information about your Open Access options, please see here. For more information about the benefits of choosing to publish Open Access, see here.

Last updated 20 August 2020