Published online by Cambridge University Press: 03 June 2009
Throughout the vast literature on British and general imperialism, the emphasis is largely upon the winning, then subsequent loss, of political control by the imperial power in colonial settings. Consequently, debate about the accession to that power has revolved largely about the great triad of considerations: economic necessity, strategic calculation, and civilising zeal. Similarly, discussion of emergent nationalist movements has hinged upon remarkably similar lines: Was the leadership of those movements motivated solely by ideologically inspired desires for independence, by the ambition to command the new sources of economic wealth developed under imperial rule, or by a simple thrust for political power to protect other interests? These are generalisations certainly, but, to take India as a case in point, much of the modern historiography has been concerned to demonstrate either how Britain “lost” or how the Indian National Congress “won” that power. But among such generalisations upon the British imperial experience, one interesting question has gone begging.
1 Compare Low, D. A., ed., Congress and the Raj: Facets of the Indian Struggle, 1917–47 (London: Heinemann, 1977);Google ScholarGallagher, Johnet al., Locality, Province, and Nation: Essays on Indian Politics, 1870–1940 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973).Google Scholar Alternative views are now being promoted in the Subaltern Studies series of essays edited by Guha, Ranajit (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1984–).Google Scholar
2 For the Indian Civil Service, Malley, L. S. S. O', The Indian Civil Service, 1601–1930 (London: Cass, 1965);Google Scholar Sir Blunt, Edward, The ICS: The Indian Civil Service (London: Faber, 1937);Google ScholarSpagenberg, Bradford, British Bureaucracy in India: Status, Policy, and the I.C.S. in the Late Nineteenth Century (Delhi: South Asia, 1974).Google Scholar
3 There is an enormous literature on imperialism generally and British imperialism particularly. One especially provocative work so far as this article is concerned, however, is Maunier, René, The Sociology of Colonies: An Introduction to the Study of Race Contact, 2 vols. (London: RKP, 1949).Google Scholar
4 For examples of colonial planning, Preston, R. A., Defence of the Undefended Border: Planning for War in North America, 1867–1939 (Toronto: McGill University Press, 1978);Google ScholarPreston, Richard A. and Wards, Ian, “Military and Defence Development in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand: A Three-Way Comparison,” War and Society, 5:1 (05 1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6 For the origins of the nation language theme, Braithwaite, Edward, “The African Presence in Caribbean Literature,” Daedalus, 103(Spring 1974);Google Scholaridem, History of the Voice: Development of Nation Language in Anglophone Caribbean Poetry (London: New Beacon, 1984);Google ScholarPubMed and Thiong'o, Ngugi Wa, Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature (London: Curry, 1986).Google Scholar
7 The role of sport is invariably overlooked in general studies on British imperialism, but one small exception is in Hyam, Ronald, Britain's Imperial Century, 1815–1914: A Study of Empire and Expansion (New York: Harper and Row, 1976).Google Scholar A limited set of essays is Mangan, J. A., The Games Ethic and Imperialism (London: Viking, 1986).Google Scholar
8 See, for example, Gramsci, Antonio, The Modern Prince and Other Writings (New York: International, 1975);Google ScholarFemia, Joseph V., Gramsci's Political Thought: Hegemony, Consciousness, and the Revolutionary Process (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981);Google ScholarHoffman, John, The Gramscian Challenge: Coercion and Consent in Marxist Political Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1984);Google ScholarLears, T. J. Jackson, “The Concept of Cultural Hegemony: Problems and Possibilities,” American Historical Review, 90:3 (06 1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar For some cautionary remarks, see the interview with Eric Hobsbawm in Abelove, Henryet al., Visions of History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1983).Google Scholar For some applications to sport, see Parry, J., “Sport and Hegemony,” Journal of Spon Philosophy, 10 (1984).Google Scholar
9 For examples, Bourdieu, Pierre, “Sport and Social Class,” Social Science Information, 17:6 (1978),CrossRefGoogle Scholaridem, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984);Google ScholarHall, Stuart and Jefferson, Tony, eds., Resistance through Rituals (London: Hutchinson, 1976).Google Scholar
10 See discussion of works by Adorno, Theordore and Benjamin, Walter in Held, David, Introduction to Critical Theory: From Horkheimer to Habermas (London: Hutchinson, 1980).Google Scholar A good example of the influence of this general work on sports analysis is Hargreaves, John, Sport, Power, and Culture: A Social and Historical Analysis of Popular Sports in Britain (New York: St. Martin's, 1986).Google Scholar
11 For a review, Sadiford, Keith A. P., “The Victorians at Play: Problems in Historiographical Methodology,” Journal of Social History, 15:2 (Winter 1981).Google Scholar For a case study of cause and effect, Mandle, W. F., “Games People Played: Cricket and Football in England and Victoria in the Late Nineteenth Century,” Historical Studies 15:60 (04 1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13 The main work in this area is Mangan, J. A., Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School: The Emergence and Consolidation of an Educational Ideology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).Google Scholar
14 For example, Scott, Patrick, “Cricket and the Religious World in the Victorian Period,” Church Quarterly, 3:1 (07 1970).Google Scholar
16 Swanton, E. W., ed., Barclay's World of Cricket (London: Collins, 1980), is a convenient guide.Google Scholar
17 Captain Johnstone, Robert, A Brief Historical Survey of the British West Indies at Risley, 1902–1950 (Port of Spain: Government Printing Office, 1951).Google Scholar
19 For example, the Badminton Library series of instructional works on sport, edited by the Eighth Duke of Beaufort and A. E. T. Watson.
20 For example, Buckland, C. T., Sketches of Social Life in India (London: Allen, 1884);Google ScholarTroup, Major W., Sporting Memories: My Life as Gloucestershire County Cricketer, Rugby and Hockey Player, and Member of the Indian Police Service (London: Hutchinson, 1924);Google ScholarInglis, James, Tent Life in Tigerland and Sport and Work on the Nepaul Frontier (Sydney: Hutchinson, 1888).Google Scholar
21 See Mangan, J. A., “Eton in India: The Imperial Diffusion of a Victorian Educational Ethic,” History of Education, 7:2 (1978);CrossRefGoogle ScholarWild, Roland, Ranji (London: Rich and Cowan, 1934);Google ScholarNandy, Ashis, “Raji: Cricket, Nationalism, Politics, Person,” Frontline, 3:9 (3–16 05 1986), pp. 108–18.Google Scholar
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26 Chester, Greville John, Transatlantic Sketches (London: Smith Elder, 1869); the Trobriand case is outlined later in this article.Google Scholar
30 For example, Report of the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly Appointed to Inquire into the Alleged Surfeit of Horse Racing, Parliamentary Papers of Western Australia, 1905, I, A2.Google Scholar
35 Willingdon took a keen interest in the game in all its colonial settings, and Jackson became a Marylebone Cricket Club Committee member.
38 For example, the Imperial Cricket Council was not transformed into the International Cricket Council until the 1960s, well into the phase of political devolution.
40 The maharajahs of Jaipur were especially prominent in this regard.
42 Colonial Office, (hereafter cited CO), 83/203/4, Public Records Office, London (hereafter cited PRO).
44 For the Indian case, Cashman, Richard, Patrons, Players, and the Crowd: The Phenomenon of Indian Cricket (Bombay: Orient Longman, 1980);Google Scholar for Australia, Mandle, W. F., “Cricket and Australian Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 59:4 (12 1973).Google Scholar
45 For Australian regional examples, see Stoddart, Brian, “Spon and Society, 1890–1940: A Foray,” in A New History of Western Australia, Stannage, C. T., ed. (Perth: University of Western Australia, 1981);Google ScholarVamplew, Wray, “Sport: More than Fun and Games,” in The Flinders History of South Australia, Richards, Eric, ed. (Adelaide: Wakefield, 1986).Google Scholar
46 See the many references to cricket in the Menzies Papers, National Library of Australia, Canberra.
47 For this story, Stoddart, Brian, “Cricket and Colonialism in the English-Speaking Caribbean to 1914: Towards a Cultural Analysis,” in Pleasure, Profit, and Proselytism: British Culture and Sport, at Home and Abroad, 1750–1914, Mangan, J. A., ed. (London: Cass, 1988).Google Scholar
51 Cashman, Patrons, Players, and the Crowd; also Pavri, M. E., Parsi Cricket (Bombay: Thacker, 1901).Google Scholar
52 See Stoddart, Brian, “Cricket, Social Formation, and Cultural Continuity in Barbados: A Preliminary Ethnohistory,” Journal of Sport History, 14, 3 (Winter 1987).Google Scholar A good fictional description of the Trinidadian situation is Mittelholzer, Edgar, A Morning at the Office (London: Heinemann, 1974).Google Scholar
53 The Adams story may be followed in Hoyos, F. A., Grantley Adams and the Social Revolution (London: Heinemann, 1974).Google Scholar
63 See L/I/l/259–58, L/I/1/251–58–1, India Office Library, London.
64 The specific discussion of the imperial dimension to this story is in Ric Sissons and Stoddart, Brian, Cricket and Empire: The 1932–33 Bodyline Tour of Australia (Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1984).Google Scholar
65 The general picture from Stoddart, Brian, “Sport, Culture, and Postcolonial Relations: The Commonwealth Games,” in Sport and Politics, Redmond, Gerald S., ed. (Champaign: Human Kinetics, 1986);Google Scholar for the detailed origins, Moore, Katharine, “The Concept of British Empire Games: An Analysis of Its Origin and Evolution from 1891 to 1930” (Ph.D. thesis, University of Queensland, 1987).Google Scholar
66 Mandle, “Cricket and Australian Nationalism.”
69 Nayak (30 July 1911) in Native Newspaper Reports: Bengal (5 August 1911).
71 For the British story, Dunning, Eric and Sheard, Kenneth, Barbarians, Gentlemen, and Players: A Sociological Study of the Development of Rugby Football (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979).Google Scholar
73 For example, Hobbs, J. B., Recovering the Ashes: An Account of the Cricket Tour in Australia, 1911–12 (London: Pitman, 1912).Google Scholar
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75 Christian, F. W. and Fischer, E. H., “Cricket as She is Played in Samoa,” Badminton Magazine, 25 (07–12 1907), 78–84.Google Scholar
77 This story is best portrayed in the ethnographic film, Trobriand Cricket, made by Jerry Leach; for a similar view concerning Ocean Island, Grimble, Arthur, A Pattern of Islands (London: Murray, 1952), 48–52.Google Scholar
79 Steven Jones, “Sport and Politics: The Community Sports Movement in Britain, 19281935,” paper presented at the Eighth International Economic History Congress, Budapest, August 1982.
80 Stoeldart, Brian, “Sport, Cultural Politics, and International Relations: England versus Germany, 1935,” in Sport History, Muller, Norbert and Ruhi, Joachim K., eds. (Neidernhausen: Schors-Verlag, 1985);Google ScholarBeck, Peter, “England v. Germany, 1938,” History Today, 32 (06 1982).Google Scholar
82 See McKernan, Michael, “Sport, War, and Society: Australia, 1914–1918,” in Sport in History, Cashman, Richard and McKeman, Michael, eds. (Brisbane: University of Queensland Press, 1979);Google Scholar and Veitch, Colin, “Play up! Play up! And Win the War! Football, the Nation, and the First World War, 1914–15,” Journal of Contemporary History, 20:3 (07 1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
84 For the general story, Lewis, Gordon K., The Growth of the Modern West Indies (New York: Modern, 1968).Google Scholar
86 Marshall, W. K., “Gary Sobers and the Brisbane Revolution,” New World Quarterly, 2:1 (1965).Google Scholar
87 There is a considerable literature on this subject, but see Archer, Robert and Bouillon, Antoine, The South African Game: Sport and Racism (London: Zed, 1982).Google Scholar