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A review of the neurobiology of obesity and the available pharmacotherapies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 January 2018

Mehala Subramaniapillai
Affiliation:
Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Roger S. McIntyre*
Affiliation:
Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Ontario, Canada
*
*Address for correspondence: Roger S. McIntyre, MD, FRCPC, Professor of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Head, Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, 399 Bathurst Street, MP 9-325, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada. (Email: roger.mcintyre@uhn.ca)

Abstract

Obesity is becoming an increasing problem worldwide. In addition to causing many physical health consequences, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that obesity is toxic to the brain and, as such, can be considered a disease of the central nervous system. Peripheral level regulators of appetite, such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin, feed into the appetite center of the brain, which is controlled by the hypothalamus, to maintain homeostasis and energy balance. However, food consumption is not solely mediated by energy balance, but is also regulated by the mesolimbic reward system, where motivation, reward, and reinforcement factors influence obesity. The purpose of this review is to highlight the neurobiology of eating behavior and obesity and to describe various neurobiological treatment mechanisms to treat obesity.

Type
CME Review Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2018 

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Footnotes

This activity is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Orexigen Therapeutics.

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