Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-dz7l6 Total loading time: 0.25 Render date: 2021-09-25T14:32:20.036Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

PTSD treatment in light of DSM-5 and the “golden hours” concept

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 July 2016

Lior Carmi
Affiliation:
National Post-Trauma Center, Research Foundation by the Sheba Medical Center, Israel Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Leah Fostick
Affiliation:
Department of Communication Disorders, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
Shimon Burshtein
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Chaim Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
Shlomit Cwikel-Hamzany
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Chaim Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
Joseph Zohar*
Affiliation:
National Post-Trauma Center, Research Foundation by the Sheba Medical Center, Israel Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
*
*Address for correspondence: Joseph Zohar, A National Post-Traumatic Center, Research Foundation by the Sheba Medical Center, Israel; and Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. (Email: Jzohar@post.tau.ac.il)

Abstract

One of the main changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was the separation of Stress Related Disorders from the Anxiety chapter. This separation paves the way to examine the unique characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (ie, identifiable onset, memory processes, etc) and related neural mechanisms. The time that elapses between the traumatic event and the manifestation of the disorder may also be addressed as the “golden hours,” or the window of opportunity in which critical processes take place and relevant interventions may be administrated.

Type
Opinions
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. Regier, DA, Narrow, WE, Clarke, DE, et al. DSM-5 field trials in the United States and Canada, Part II: test-retest reliability of selected categorical diagnoses. Am J Psychiatry. 2013; 170(1): 5970.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Bryant, RA, Creamer, M, O’Donnell, M, Silove, D, McFarlane, AC, Forbes, D. A comparison of the capacity of DSM-IV and DSM-5 acute stress disorder definitions to predict posttraumatic stress disorder and related disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015; 76(4): 391397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Gil, S, Caspi, Y, Ben-Ari, IZ, Koren, D, Klein, E. Does memory of a traumatic event increase the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury? A prospective study. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162(5): 963969.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. de Kloet, ER, Oitzl, MS, Joels, M. Stress and cognition: are corticosteroids good or bad guys? Trends Neurosci. 1999; 22(10): 422426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5. McGaugh, JL. Memory—a century of consolidation. Science. 2000; 287(5451): 248251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Roth, S, Cohen, LJ. Approach, avoidance, and coping with stress. Am Psychol. 1986; 41(7): 813819.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7. Ginzburg, K, Solomon, Z, Bleich, A. Repressive coping style, acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder after myocardial infarction. Psychosom Med. 2002; 64(5): 748757.Google ScholarPubMed
8. Nader, K, Schafe, GE, Le Doux, JE. Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval. Nature. 2000; 406(6797): 722726.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Tronson, NC, Taylor, JR. Molecular mechanisms of memory reconsolidation. Nature Rev Neurosci. 2007; 8(4): 262275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Debiec, J, LeDoux, JE, Nader, K. Cellular and systems reconsolidation in the hippocampus. Neuron. 2002; 36(3): 527538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333(24): 15811587.Google Scholar
12. Mayou, RA, Ehlers, A, Hobbs, M. Psychological debriefing for road traffic accident victims. Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2000; 176(6): 589593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13. Brom, D, Kleber, RJ, Hofman, MC. Victims of traffic accidents: incidence and prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychol. 1993; 49(2): 131140.3.0.CO;2-2>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14. Zatzick, DF, Roy-Byrne, P, Russo, JE, et al. Collaborative interventions for physically injured trauma survivors: a pilot randomized effectiveness trial. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2001; 23(3): 114123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Sijbrandij, M, Olff, M, Reitsma, JB, Carlier, IV, Gersons, BP. Emotional or educational debriefing after psychological trauma. Randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2006; 189(2): 150155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16. van Emmerik, AA, Kamphuis, JH, Hulsbosch, AM, Emmelkamp, PM. Single session debriefing after psychological trauma: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2002; 360(9335): 766771.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17. Matar, MA, Zohar, J, Kaplan, Z, Cohen, H. Alprazolam treatment immediately after stress exposure interferes with the normal HPA-stress response and increases vulnerability to subsequent stress in an animal model of PTSD. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009; 19(4): 283295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18. Lupien, SJ, Maheu, F, Tu, M, Fiocco, A, Schramek, TE. The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: implications for the field of brain and cognition. Brain Cogn. 2007; 65(3): 209237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19. Cohen, H, Zohar, J, Gidron, Y, et al. Blunted HPA axis response to stress influences susceptibility to posttraumatic stress response in rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 59(12): 12081218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. Delahanty, DL, Raimonde, AJ, Spoonster, E. Initial posttraumatic urinary cortisol levels predict subsequent PTSD symptoms in motor vehicle accident victims. Biol Psychiatry. 2000; 48(9): 940947.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21. Gelpin, E, Bonne, O, Peri, T, Brandes, D, Shalev, AY. Treatment of recent trauma survivors with benzodiazepines: a prospective study. J Clin Psychiatry. 1996; 57(9): 390394.Google ScholarPubMed
22. Mellman, TA, Bustamante, V, David, D, Fins, AI. Hypnotic medication in the aftermath of trauma. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002; 63(12): 11831184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Rothbaum, BO, Price, M, Jovanovic, T, et al. A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans. Am J Psychiatry. 2014; 171(6): 640648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24. Bienvenu, OJ, Williams, JB, Yang, A, Hopkins, RO, Needham, DM. Posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of acute lung injury: evaluating the Impact of Event Scale–Revised. Chest. 2013; 144(1): 2431.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25. Baranyi, A, Krauseneck, T, Rothenhausler, HB. Posttraumatic stress symptoms after solid-organ transplantation: preoperative risk factors and the impact on health-related quality of life and life satisfaction. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2013; 11: 111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26. Cohen, H, Zohar, J, Matar, M. The relevance of differential response to trauma in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 53(6): 463473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27. Cohen, H, Matar, MA, Buskila, D, Kaplan, Z, Zohar, J. Early post-stressor intervention with high-dose corticosterone attenuates posttraumatic stress response in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 64(8): 708717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28. Zohar, J, Yahalom, H, Kozlovsky, N, et al. High dose hydrocortisone immediately after trauma may alter the trajectory of PTSD: interplay between clinical and animal studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011; 21(11): 796809.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

PTSD treatment in light of DSM-5 and the “golden hours” concept
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

PTSD treatment in light of DSM-5 and the “golden hours” concept
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

PTSD treatment in light of DSM-5 and the “golden hours” concept
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *