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Inflammatory cytokines in and cognitive function of adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 October 2021

Mu-Hong Chen
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Ju-Wei Hsu*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Kai-Lin Huang
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Shih-Jen Tsai
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Pei-Chi Tu
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Ya-Mei Bai*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan
*
*Authors for correspondence: Ya-Mei Bai, MD, PhD Email: ymbi@mail2000.com.tw; Ju-Wei Hsu, MD Email: jwhsu@vghtpe.gov.tw
*Authors for correspondence: Ya-Mei Bai, MD, PhD Email: ymbi@mail2000.com.tw; Ju-Wei Hsu, MD Email: jwhsu@vghtpe.gov.tw

Abstract

Background

Few studies have explored the complex relationship of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines with cognitive function in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder.

Methods

In total, 26, 35, and 29 adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, respectively, and 22 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the current study. Cytokines, namely interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were assessed. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the working memory task were administered to assess cognitive function.

Results

Using generalized linear models with adjustment for demographic data and clinical symptoms, patients with bipolar disorder were found to exhibit the highest levels of CRP (P = .023), IL-6 (P = .022), and TNF-α (P = .011), and had the lowest IL-2 levels (P = .034) among the four groups. According to the results of the WCST and working memory task, adolescents with schizophrenia exhibited the lowest performance in cognitive function. In addition, among the assessed cytokines, only CRP levels (P = .027) were negatively associated with WCST scores.

Discussion

Dysregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and impaired cognitive functioning were observed in first-episode adolescent-onset schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. The altered cytokine profiles may play important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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