Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-9z9qw Total loading time: 0.775 Render date: 2021-08-04T16:10:33.551Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

If We Had Known Then What We Know Now: A Review of Local and National Surveys Following September 11, 2001

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 November 2014

Abstract

There is little research on the consequences of large-scale violent disasters in a community despite their unfortunate prevalence over many decades. The primary source of epidemiological data for the greater New York community in dealing with the September 11, 2001, attacks was the Oklahoma City bombing. In the latter event, 45% of directly exposed adults met criteria for a major psychiatric disorder 6 months later, including 34% with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The first survey after the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks, conducted within one week, revealed a remarkable degree of symptomatology across the nation in both adults and children. Forty-four percent of adults reported at least 1 of 5 PTSD screening symptoms in the 3–5 days after the attacks; 35% of parents reported children who had at least one symptom, and 47% of children worried about their own or someone else's safety. Coping behaviors were consistent with a community mental health model and included turning to open discussion (98%), religion (90%), and community activities (60%) in order to cope with their reactions.

Rates of disorder were also high in a survey conducted 5–8 weeks later in Manhattan below 110th Street, with 38% saying they directly witnessed the World Trade Center attack. The current prevalence of new-onset PTSD was 7.5%, and of new-onset major depressive disorder, 9.7%. This translates into 67,000 persons with PTSD and 87,000 persons with major depression. This survey also found a significant increase in tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, but primarily among adults already using these substances. All surveys found strong associations between media exposure and symptomatology. The greatest need at this point in the literature is therapeutics research after such traumatic events.

Type
Feature Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2002

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.Google Scholar
2.Yehuda, R. Posttraumatic stress disorder. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:130132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3.North, CS, Nixon, SJ, Shariat, S, et al.Psychiatric disorders among survivorsw of the Oklahoma City bombing. JAMA. 1999;282:755762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4.Marshall, RD, Olfson, M, Hellman, FBlanco, C, Guardino, M, Struening, F. Comorbidity, impairment, and suicidality in subthreshold PTSD. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:14671473.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5.Stein, MB, Walker, JR, Hazen, AL, Forde, DR. Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from a community survey. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:11141119.Google ScholarPubMed
6.Weiss, DS, Marmar, CR, Schlenger, WE, et al.The prevalence of lifetime and partial post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam theater veterans. J Trauma Stress. 1992;5:365376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7.Call, JA, Pfefferbaum, B. Lessons from the first two years of Project Heartland, Oklahoma's mental health response to the 1995 Bombing. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:953955.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.Effective Treatments for PTSD. In: Foa, EB, Keane, TM, Friedman, MJ, eds. New York, NY: Guildford Press; 2000.Google Scholar
9.Schuster, MA, Stein, BD, Jsaycox, LH, et al.A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. N Eng J Med. 2001;345:15071512.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10.Pfefferbaum, B, Nixon, SJ, tucker, PM, Tivis, RD, et al.Posttraumatic stress responses in bereaved children after the Oklahoma City bombing. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38:13721379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11.Terr, LC, Bloch, DA, Michel, BA, Shi, H, Reinhardt, JA, Metayer, SA. Children's symptoms in the wake of challenger: a field study of distant traumatic effects and an outline of related conditions. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:15361544.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12.Cantor, J, Mares, ML, Oliver, MB. Parents' and children's emotional reactions to TV coverage of the Gulf War. In: Greenberg, BS, Gantz, W, eds. Desert Storm and the Mass Media. Creeskill, NJ: Hampton Press; 1993:325340.Google Scholar
13.Schlenger, WE, Caddell, JM, Ebert, L, et al.Psychological reactions to terrorist attacks: findings from the national study of Americans' reactions to September 11. JAMA. 2002;288:581588CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14.Galea, S, Resnick, H, Ahern, J, et al.Posttraumatic stress disorder in Manhattan, New York City, after the September 11th terrorist attacks. J Urban Health. 2002;79:340353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15.Galea, S, Ahern, J, Resnick, H, et al.Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. N Eng J Med. 2002;46:982987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16.Vlahov, D, Galea, S, Resnick, H, et al.Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;55:988996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

If We Had Known Then What We Know Now: A Review of Local and National Surveys Following September 11, 2001
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

If We Had Known Then What We Know Now: A Review of Local and National Surveys Following September 11, 2001
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

If We Had Known Then What We Know Now: A Review of Local and National Surveys Following September 11, 2001
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *