Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gq7q9 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-18T21:27:12.109Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Titanite Low-Temperature Alteration and Ti Mobility

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2024

David B. Tilley*
Affiliation:
Cooperative Research Centre for Landscape Evolution and Mineral Exploration, Department of Geology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Richard A. Eggleton*
Affiliation:
Cooperative Research Centre for Landscape Evolution and Mineral Exploration, Department of Geology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
*
Present address: PO Box 1605, Queanbeyan, NSW 2620, Australia
*E-mail address of corresponding author: tony.eggleton@anu.edu.au

Abstract

A pseudomorphous aggregate after titanite composed of smectite, anatase and residual titanite of composition (Ca0.98,Mn0.02)(Ti0.65,Al0.35)[SiO4](O0.65,OH0.35), from a depth of 450 m in the Broken Hill South Mine, New South Wales, Australia, was investigated by electron microscopy and microanalysis to characterize the alteration products and the mobility of Ti. Examination of the pseudomorph showed randomly oriented anatase crystals dispersed throughout a matrix of beidellite, with 9% porosity. Around the periphery and along the (110) cleavage plane of titanite, alteration was most developed. The range of Ti mobility was found to be limited to ~500 nm, and the ratio between the average diameter of anatase crystals and the average distance between them is ≈1.3. This ratio is consistent with an alteration process in which Ti is conserved and the anatase crystals grow from the Ti available immediately around them. It is unlikely that Ti migrated beyond the titanite pseudomorph.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Clay Minerals Society 2005

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Banfield, J.F. Bischoff, B.L. and Anderson, M.A., (1993) Ti02 accessory minerals: coarsening, and transformation kinetics in pure and doped synthetic nanocrystalline materials Chemical Geology 110 211231 10.1016/0009-2541(93)90255-H.Google Scholar
Braun, J.-J. Pagel, M. Herbillon, A. and Rosin, C., (1993) Mobilization and redistribution of REEs and thorium in a syenitic lateritic profile: A mass balance study Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57 44194434 10.1016/0016-7037(93)90492-F.Google Scholar
Cornu, S. Lucas, Y. Lebonc, E. Ambrosi, J.-P. Luizão, F. Rouiller, J. Bonnay, M. and Neal, C., (1999) Evidence of titanium mobility in soil profiles, Manaus, central Amazonia Geoderma 91 281295 10.1016/S0016-7061(99)00007-5.Google Scholar
Deer, W.A. Howie, R.A. and Zussman, J., (1992) An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals Essex, England Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow.Google Scholar
Eggleton, R.A. Varkevisser, D. and Foudoulis, C., (1987) The weathering of basalt: changes in bulk chemistry and mineralogy Clays and Clay Minerals 35 161169 10.1346/CCMN.1987.0350301.Google Scholar
Franz, G. and Spear, F.S., (1985) Aluminous titanite (sphene) from the eclogite zone, south central Tauern Window, Austria Chemical Geology 50 3346 10.1016/0009-2541(85)90110-X.Google Scholar
Higgins, J.B. and Ribbe, P.H., (1976) The crystal chemistry and space groups of natural and synthetic titanites American Mineralogist 61 878888.Google Scholar
Hynes, A., (1980) Carbonatization and Mobility of Ti, Y, and Zr in Ascot Formation Metabasalts, SE Quebec Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 75 7987 10.1007/BF00371891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, H.F. O’Driscoll, E.S. and Edwards, A.B., (1953) The Broken Hill Lode Geology of Australian Ore Deposits 578600.Google Scholar
Law, K.R. Nesbitt, H.W. and Longstaffe, F.J., (1991) Weathering of granitic tills and the genesis of a podzol American Journal of Science 291 940955 10.2475/ajs.291.10.940.Google Scholar
Liebau, F. and Ribbe, P.H., (1982) Classification of silicates Orthosilicates Washington, D.C. Mineralogical Society of America 124.Google Scholar
Malengreau, N. Muller, J.-P. and Calas, G., (1995) Spectroscopic approach for investigating the status of Ti in kaolinitic materials Clays and Clay Minerals 43 621 10.1346/CCMN.1995.0430511.Google Scholar
Matthews, A., (1976) The crystallization of anatase and rutile from amorphous titanium dioxide under hydrothermal conditions American Mineralogist 61 419424.Google Scholar
Metson, J.B. Bancroft, G.M. Kanetkar, S.M. Nesbitt, H.W. Fyfe, W.S. and Hayward, P.J., (1982) Leaching of natural and synthetic sphene and perovskite Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management V 11 329338.Google Scholar
Middleburg, J.J. Van der Weijden, C.H. and Woittiez, J.R.W., (1988) Chemical processes affecting the mobility of major, minor and trace elements during weathering of granitic rocks Chemical Geology 68 253273 10.1016/0009-2541(88)90025-3.Google Scholar
Mitchell, R.S., (1964) Pseudomorphs of anatase after sphene from Roanoke County, Virginia American Mineralogist 49 11361139.Google Scholar
Myhra, S. Savage, D. Atkinson, A. and Rivière, J.C., (1984) Surface modification of some titanite minerals subjected to hydrothermal chemical attack American Mineralogist 69 902909.Google Scholar
Nesbitt, H.W., (1979) Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements during weathering of granodiorite Nature 279 206210 10.1038/279206a0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesbitt, H.W. Bancroft, G.M. Karkhanis, S.N. Fyfe, W.S. and Moore, J.G., (1981) The stability of perovskite and sphene in the presence of backfill and repository minerals: A general approach Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management III New York Plenum 131138 10.1007/978-1-4684-4040-9_17.Google Scholar
Plimer, I.R., (1984) The mineralogical history of the Broken Hill Lode, NSW Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 31 379402 10.1080/08120098408729300.Google Scholar
Ribbe, P.H. and Ribbe, P.H., (1982) Titanite (sphene) Orthosilicates Washington, D.C. Mineralogical Society of America 137154 10.1515/9781501508622-010.Google Scholar
Rubin, J.N. Henry, C.D. and Price, J.G., (1993) The mobility of zirconium and other “immobile” elements during hydro-thermal alteration Chemical Geology 110 2947 10.1016/0009-2541(93)90246-F.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speer, J.A. and Gibbs, G.V., (1976) The crystal structure of synthetic titanite, CaTiOSiO4, and the domain textures of natural titanites American Mineralogist 61 238247.Google Scholar
Stevens, B.P.J., (1986) Post-depositional history of the Willyama Supergroup in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales Australian Journal of Earth Science 33 7398 10.1080/08120098608729351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tardy, Y., (1971) Characterization of the principal weathering types by the geochemistry of waters from some European and African crystalline massifs Chemical Geology 7 253271 10.1016/0009-2541(71)90011-8.Google Scholar
Taylor, J.C. and Clapp, R.A., (1992) New features and advanced applications of SIROQUANT: a personal computer XRD full profile quantitative analysis software package Advances in X-ray Analysis 35 4955.Google Scholar
van Baalen, M.R., (1993) Titanium mobility in metamorphic systems: a review Chemical Geology 110 233249 10.1016/0009-2541(93)90256-I.Google Scholar
van der Heyden, A. Edgecombe, D.R. and Hughes, F.E., (1990) Silver-lead-zinc deposit at South Mine, Broken Hill Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea 10731077.Google Scholar
Vance, E.R. and Doern, D.C., (1989) The properties of anatase pseudomorphs after titanite The Canadian Mineralogist 27 495498.Google Scholar
Willis, I.L. Brown, R.E. Stroud, W.J. and Stevens, B.P.J., (1983) The Early Proterozoic Willyama Supergroup: strati-graphic subdivision and interpretation of high to low-grade metamorphic rocks in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales Journal of the Geological Society of Australia 30 195224 10.1080/00167618308729249.Google Scholar