Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-mwx4w Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-19T20:15:48.543Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Effects of Reaction Conditions on the Formation of Todorokite at Atmospheric Pressure

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2024

Hao-Jie Cui
Affiliation:
College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Xiong-Han Feng
Affiliation:
College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Ji-Zheng He
Affiliation:
Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
Wen-Feng Tan*
Affiliation:
College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Fan Liu
Affiliation:
College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
*E-mail address of corresponding author: tanwf@mail.hzau.edu.cn

Abstract

Todorokite is a common Mn oxide (with a tunnel structure) in the Earth surface environment, and can be obtained by hydrothermal treatment or refluxing process from precursor buserite with a layered structure. Several chemical reaction conditions for the phase transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite at atmospheric pressure were investigated, including temperature, pH, crystallinity of precursor Na-buserite, the amount of the interlayer Mg2+ of the Mg-buserite and clay minerals. The results showed that the conversion rate and crystallinity of todorokite decreased with falling temperature, and Mg-buserite could not be completely transformed to todorokite at lower temperatures (40°C). The poorly crystalline Na-buserite could be converted into todorokite more easily than highly crystalline Na-buserite. Todorokite can be prepared at pH 5–9, but the rate of conversion and crystallinity of todorokite did vary with pH in the order: neutral ≈ alkali > acidic. The conversion rate of todorokite decreased with decreasing interlayer Mg2+ content of the Mg-buserite. The presence of montmorillonite or goethite slowed the formation reaction of todorokite in the refluxing process, and the reaction time was prolonged when the amounts of those minerals were increased.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © 2006, The Clay Minerals Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Al-Sagheer, F.A. and Zaki, M.L., (2004) Synthesis and surface characterization of todorokite-type microporous manganese oxides: implications for shape-selective oxidation catalysts Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 67 4352 10.1016/j.micromeso.2003.10.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atkinson, R.J. Posner, A.M. and Quirk, J.P., (1967) Adsorption of potential determining ion on the ferric oxide-aqueous electrolyte interface Journal of Physical Chemistry B 71 550558 10.1021/j100862a014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ching, S. Krukowska, K.S. and Suib, S.L., (1999) A new synthetic route to todorokite-type manganese oxides Inorganica Chimica Acta 294 123132 10.1016/S0020-1693(99)00208-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, H.J. Feng, X.H. Liu, F. Tan, W.F. and He, J.Z., (2005) Factors governing formation of todorokite at atmospheric pressure Science in China Series D Earth Sciences 48 16781689 10.1360/01YD0550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, Q. Honbu, C. Yanagisawa, K. and Yamasaki, N., (1999) Hydrothermal soft chemical reaction for formation of sandwich layered manganese oxide Chemistry of. Materials 11 24442450 10.1021/cm990133n.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, X.H. Tan, W.F. Liu, F. Wang, J.B. and Ruan, H.D., (2004) Synthesis of todorokite at atmospheric pressure Chemistry of Materials 16 43304336 10.1021/cm0499545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, X.H. Liu, F. Tan, W.F. Liu, X.W. and Hu, H.Q., (2004) Synthesis of todorokite by refluxing process and its primary characteristics Science in China Series D Earth Sciences 47 760768 10.1360/03yd0511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, X.H. Liu, F. Tan, W.F. and Liu, X.W., (2004) Synthesis of birnessite from the oxidation of Mn2+ by O2 in alkali medium: Effects of synthesis conditions Clays and Clay Minerals 52 240250 10.1346/CCMN.2004.0520210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, X.H. Tan, W.F. Liu, F. Wang, Y.J. and Xu, Y.S., (2005) Hydrothermal synthesis of todorokite and its influencing factors Earth Science Journal China University of Geosciences 30 347352.Google Scholar
Giovanoli, R. Burki, P. Giuffredi, M. and Stumm, W., (1975) Layer structured manganese oxide hydroxides IV. The buserite group: structure stabilization by transition elements Chimia 29 517520.Google Scholar
Golden, D.C. Chen, C.C. and Dixon, J.B., (1986) Synthesis of todorokite Science 231 717719 10.1126/science.231.4739.717.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golden, D.C. Chen, C.C. and Dixon, J.B., (1987) Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment Clays and Clay Minerals 35 271280 10.1346/CCMN.1987.0350404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuma, K. Usui, A. Paplawsky, W. Gedulin, B. and Arrhenius, G., (1994) Crystal structures of synthetic 7 Å and 10 Å manganates substituted by mono- and divalent cations Mineralogical Magazine 58 425447 10.1180/minmag.1994.058.392.08.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lanson, B. Drits, V.A. Silvester, E. and Manceau, A., (2000) Structure of H-exchanged hexagonal birnessite and its mechanism of formation from Na-rich monoclinic buserite at low pH American Mineralogist 85 826838 10.2138/am-2000-5-625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, J. Cai, J. Son, Y.C. Gao, Q. Suib, S.L. and Aindow, M., (2002) Magnesium manganese oxide nanoribbons: Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application Journal of Physical Chemistry B 106 97619768 10.1021/jp0208586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Z.H. Kang, L. Ooi, K. Makita, Y. and Feng, Q., (2005) Studies on the formation of todorokite-type manganese oxide with different crystalline birnessites by Mg2+-templating reaction Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 285 239246 10.1016/j.jcis.2004.11.021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luo, J. Zhang, Q. Huang, A. Giraldo, O. and Suib, S.L., (1999) Double-aging method for preparation of stabilized Na-buserite and transformations to todorokites incorporated with various metals Inorganic Chemistry 38 61066113 10.1021/ic980675r.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Malinger, K.A. Laubernds, K. Son, Y.C. and Suib, S.L., (2004) Effects of microwave processing on chemical, physical and catalytic properties of todorokite-type manganese oxide Chemistry of Materials 16 42964303 10.1021/cm049149q.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mellin, T.A. and Lei, G., (1993) Stabilization of 10 Å-manganates by interlayer cations and hydrothermal treatment: Implication for the mineralogy of marine manganese concretions Marine Geology 115 6783 10.1016/0025-3227(93)90075-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naoaki, K. Shinichi, K. Hiroiki, S. and Nobuko, K., (2001) Preparation of todorokite-type manganese-based oxide and its application as lithium and magnesium rechargeable battery cathode Journal of Power Sources 97–98 515517.Google Scholar
Post, J.E. Heaney, P.J. and Hanson, J., (2003) Synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the structure and dehydration behavior of todorokite American Mineralogist 88 142150 10.2138/am-2003-0117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, Y.F. Zerger, R.P. DeGuzman, R.N. Suib, S.L. McCurdy, L. Potter, D.I. and O’Young, C.L., (1993) Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves: preparation, characterization and application Science 260 511515 10.1126/science.260.5107.511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, Y.F. Suib, S.L. and O’Young, C.L., (1994) Effects of inorganic cation templates on octahedral molecular sieves of manganese oxide Journal of American Chemical Society 116 1102011029 10.1021/ja00103a018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, Y.F. Suib, S.L. and O’Young, C.L., (1996) Cu containing octahedral molecular sieves and octahedral layered materials Journal of Catalysis 161 115122 10.1006/jcat.1996.0168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silvester, E. Manceau, A. and Drits, V.A., (1997) Structure of synthetic monoclinic Na-rich birnessite and hexagonal birnessite: II. Results from chemical studies and EXAFS spectroscopy American Mineralogist 82 962978 10.2138/am-1997-9-1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tan, W.F. Liu, F. Li, Y.H. He, J.Z. and Li, X.Y., (2000) Mineralogy of manganese in iron-manganese nodules of several soils in China Acta Pedologica Sinica 37 192201.Google Scholar
Turner, S. Siegel, M.D. and Buseck, P.R., (1982) Structure features of tordorokite intergrowths in manganese nodules Nature 296 841842 10.1038/296841a0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vileno, E. Zhou, H. Zhang, Q. Suib, S.L. Corbin, D.R. and Koch, T.A., (1999) Synthetic todorokite produced by microwave heating: An active oxidation catalyst Journal of Catalysis 187 285297 10.1006/jcat.1999.2639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar