Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-zxcqg Total loading time: 0.389 Render date: 2021-10-28T09:22:59.584Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the Taşoluk kaolinite deposits in pre-Early Cambrian metamorphites and Neogene volcanites of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 July 2018

S. Kadir*
Department of Geological Engineering, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, TR-26480 Eskişehir, Turkey
A. Akbulut
The Aegean Region Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), TR-35040 İzmir, Turkey


The Taşoluk kaolinite deposits of Afyonkarahisar (western Anatolia) are hosted by both pre-Early Cambrian sericitic mica-chlorite schists and Neogene volcanites, the latter comprising tuffs and agglomerates. These units have been affected by hydrothermal alteration controlled by faults resulting in complex, irregular, lateral mineralogical zonation. The occurrence of a siliceous cap on altered schists and in claystone, of quartz veins in schists and tuffs, and the development of explosion cones and pit fillings indicate that alteration in both the schists and the volcanites is due to hydrothermal processes. Altered schists have generally large (locally small) Fe contents, and claystones are generally silicified and have small Fe contents. Kaolinite predominates south and west of Taşoluk, whereas high (Fe+Ti)-bearing illite + kaolinite predominate in other altered sections. The kaolinite exhibits a stacked micromorphology within altered schists, and the altered volcanites record in situ precipitation, derived from a mechanism of paired dissolution and precipitation. Illite fibres coexist with kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, mica and sericitized feldspar in markedly altered schists, revealing that the illite formed either authigenically or by conversion of smectite to illite. A relative increase in Cr+Ni and decrease in Sr+Ba in the kaolinite deposits and their schistose host rock relative to the upper level of the kaolinite deposits and their volcanic parent rocks came about by the alteration of chlorite, mica and feldspar in the sericitic mica-chlorite schists, and feldspar, glass shards and schist fragments in the volcanites as a result of extensive faulting, fracturing and hydrothermal activity during Late Miocene-Pliocene volcanism, which contributed to the development of kaolinite deposits under acidic environmental conditions. With regard to industrial applications, the low-Fe kaolinized schists are suitable for use in refractories and paper coatings, while the claystone is suitable for use in ceramics and in the white-cement industry.

Research Article
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Arslan, M., Kadir, S., Abdioğlu, E. & Kolaylı, H. (2006) Origin and formation of kaolin minerals in saprolite of Tertiary alkaline volcanic rocks, Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey. Clay Minerals, 41, 597617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berner, E.K. & Berner, R.A. (1996) Global Environment: Water, Air, and Geochemical Cycles. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 376 pp.Google Scholar
Bethke, G.M. & Altaner, S.P. (1986) Layer-by-layer mechanism of smectite illitization and application to a new rate law. Clays and Clay Minerals, 34, 136145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bobos, I., Duplay, J., Rocha, J. & Gomes, C. (2001) Kaolinite to halloysite-7Å transformation in the kaolin deposit of São vicente de Pereira, Portugal. Clays and Clay Minerals, 49, 596607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bozkaya, Ö., Gürsu, S. & Göncüoglu, M.C. (2006) Textural and mineralogical evidence for a Cadomian tectonothermal event in the eastern Mediterranean (Sandıklı-Afyon area, western Taurides, Turkey). Gondwana Research, 10, 301315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braide, S.P. & Huff, W.D. (1986) Clay mineral variation in Tertiary sediments from the eastern Flank of the Niger Delta. Clay Minerals, 21, 211224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breitländer (1988) Pulverproben, Festproben Mineralische, Metallurgische Werkstoffe. Eichproben und Labormaterial GmbH, Hans-Sachs-Straae 12, D-59077 Hamm, Germany.Google Scholar
Brindley, G.W. (1980) Quantitative X-ray analysis of clays. Pp. 411438 in: Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their X-ray Identification (Brindley, G.W. and Brown, G., editors). Mineralogical Society Monograph 5, London.Google Scholar
Bundy, W. M. (1993) The diverse industrial applications of kaolin. Pp. 4347 in: Kaolin Genesis and Utilization (Murray, H.H., Bundy, W. & Harvey, C., editors). Special Publication 1, The Clay Minerals Society, Boulder, Colorado, USA.Google Scholar
Çevikbaş, A., Ercan, T. & Metin, S. (1988) Geology and regional distribution of Neogene volcanics between Afyon-Suhut. Middle East Technical University Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 21, 479499.Google Scholar
Chen, Y.C., Wang, M.K. & Yang, D.S. (2001) Mineralogy of dickite and nacrite from northern Taiwan. Clays and Clay Minerals, 49, 586595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curtis, C.D. (1983) Link between aluminium mobility and destruction of secondary porosity. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 67, 380384.Google Scholar
Eberl, D.D. (1993) Three zones for illite formation during burial diagenesis and metamorphism. Clays and Clay Minerals, 41, 2637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eberl, D. & Hower, J. (1977) The hydrothermal transformation of sodium and potassium smectite into mixed-layer clay. Clays and Clay Minerals, 26, 327340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ece, O.I. & Schroeder, P.A. (2007) Clay mineralogy and chemistry of halloysite and alunite deposits in the Turplu area, Balikesir, Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals, 55, 1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ece, Ö.I., Schroeder, P.A., Smiley, M. & Wampler, M. (2008) Acid-sulfate alteration of volcanic rocks and genesis of halloysite and alunite deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Clay Minerals, 43, 281315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehrenberg, S.N. (1991) Kaolinized, potassium-leached zones at the contacts of the Garn Formation, Haltenbanken, mid-Norwegian continental shelf. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 8, 250269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Exley, C.S. (1976) Observations on the formation of kaolinite in the St. Austell Granite, Cornwall. Clay Minerals, 11, 5163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farmer, V.C. (1974) Layer silicates. Pp. 331363 in: Infrared Spectra of Minerals (Farmer, V.C., editor). Monograph 4, Mineralogical Society, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farmer, V.C. & Palmieri, F. (1975) The characterization of soil minerals by infrared spectroscopy. Pp. 573671 in: Soil Components, vol. 2, Inorganic Components (Gieseking, J.E., editor). Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farmer, V.C. & Russell, J.D. (1964) The infrared spectra of layer silicates. Spectrochimica Ada, 20, 11491173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, H.L., Watkinson, D.H. & Comba, C.D.A. (1983) Silicification: Hydrothermal alteration in an Archean geothermal system within the Amulet Rhyolite Formation, Noranda, Quebec. Economic Geology, 78, 954971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gürsu, S. & Göncüoglu, M.C. (2003) Taşoluk, Serban, Akhanm, Başağaç ve Karadirek bölgesinde (Afyon güneyi) yüzeylenen Geç Prekambriyen - Erken Paleozoyik yaşlă birimlerin stratigrafisi ve jeolojisi. Mersin Üniversitesi 10. Yăl Sempozyumu bildiri özleri kitabi, 19-20, Mersin.Google Scholar
Gürsu, S. & Göncüoglu, M.C. (2006) Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of Cadomian felsic igneous rocks, Sandăklă area of the western Taurides, Turkey. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 95, 741757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gürsu, S., Göncüoglu, M.C. & Bayhan, H. (2004) Geology and geochemistry of the pre-Early Cambrian rocks in the Sandikli area: implications for the Pan-African evolution NW Gondwanaland. Gondwana Research, 7, 923935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammarstrom, J.M., Seal, R.R. II, Meier, A.L. & Kornfeld, J.M. (2005) Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments. Chemical Geology, 215, 40731 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, J. & Hower, J. (1979) Clay mineral assemblages as low-grade metamorphic geothermometers: Application to the thrust faulted disturbed belt of Montana. Pp. 5579 in: Aspects of Diagenesis (Scholle, P.A. and Schluger, P.R., editors). U.S.A. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hower, J., Eslinger, E.V., Hower, M. & Perry, E.A. (1976) Mechanisms of burial metamorphism of argillite sediments. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 87, 725737.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inoue, A. (1995) Formation of clay minerals in hydrothermal environments. Pp. 268329 in: Origin and Mineralogy of Clays, Clays and the Environment (Velde, B., editor), Springer-Verlag Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iwao, S. (1968) Zonal structure in some kaolin and associated deposits of hydrothermal origin in Japan. Proceedings of 23th International Geological Congress, 14, 107113.Google Scholar
Kadir, S. & Karakaş, Z. (2002) Mineralogy, chemistry and origin of halloysite, kaolinite and smectite from Miocene ignimbrites, Konya, Turkey. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 177, 113132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kadir, S., Önen-Hall, P., Aydin, S.N., Yakicier, C., Akarsu, N. & Tuncer, M. (2008) Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional cancer predisposition survey in the Zonguldak region of Northwest Turkey. Environmental Geology, 54, 391409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kämpf, N., Scheinost, A.C. & Schulze, D.G. (2000) Oxide minerals. Pp. 125168 in: Handbook of Soil Science (Sumner, M.E., editor). Boca Raton, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
Keller, W.D. (1976) Scan electron micrographs of kaolins collected from diverse origin — III. Influence of parent material on flint clays and flintlike clays. Clays and Clay Minerals, 24, 262264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kunze, G.W. & Dixon, J.B. (1986) Pretretment for mineralogical analysis. Pp. 9199 in: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Methods (Klute, A., editor). Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
Lanson, B., Beaufort, D., Berger, G., Bauer, A., Cassagnabere, A. & Meunier, A. (2002) Authigenic kaolin and illitic minerals during burial diagenesis of sandstones: a review. Clay Minerals, 37, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lavery, N.G. (1985) Quantifying chemical changes in hydrothermally altered volcanic sequences — silica enrichment as a guide to the Crandon massive sulfide depoist, Wisconsin, USA. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 24, 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacKenzie, R.C. (1957) The Differential Thermal Investigation of Clays. Monograph 2, Mineralogical Society, London, 456 pp.Google Scholar
Madejová, P., Komadel, P. & Çiçel, B. (1992) Infrared spectra of some Czech and Slovak smectites and their correlation with structural formulas. Geologica Carpathica Clays, 1, 912.Google Scholar
MBH Reference Material (1998-99) An ISO 9002 accredited company. 1994 Cert. No. 0524, 99 pp.Google Scholar
Metin, S., Genç, Ş. & Bulut, V. (1987) Afyon ve dolaymm jeolojisi, M.T.A. Raport No. 8103 (in Turkish, Unpublished).Google Scholar
Meunier, A. & Velde, B. (2004) Mite, Origin, Evolution and Metamorphism. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 286 pp.Google Scholar
Meunier, A. (2005) Clays. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidleberg, 472 pp.Google Scholar
Moore, D.M. & Reynolds, R.C. (1989) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 332 pp.Google Scholar
Morton, R.L. & Franklin, J.M. (1987) Two-fold classification of Archean volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits. Economic Geology, 82, 10571063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mutlu, H. (1998) Chemical geothermometry and fluid-mineral equilibria for the Ömer-Gecek thermal waters, Afyon area, Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 80, 303321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mutlu, H., Saniz, K. & Kadir, S. (2006) Geochemistry and origin of the Şaphane alunite deposit, western Anatolia, Turkey. Ore Geology Review, 26, 3950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagasawa, K. (1978) Kaolin minerals. Pp. 189219 in: Clays and Clay Minerals of Japan (Sudo, T. and Shimoda, S., editors). Developments in Sedimentology 26, Elsevier, Tokyo.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, A.C.D. & Brown, G. (1987) The chemical constitution of clays. Pp. 1128 in: Chemistry of Clays and Clay Minerals (Newman, A.C.D., editor). Monograph 6, Mineralogical Society, London.Google Scholar
Njoya, A., Nkoumbou, C., Grosbois, C., Njopwouo, D., Njoya, D., Courtin-Nomade, A., Yvon, J. & Martin, F. (2006) Genesis of Mayouom kaolin deposit (western Cameroon). Applied Clay Science, 32, 125140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okay, A.I., Demirbağ, E., Kurt, H., Okay, N. & Kuşçu, I. (1999) An active, deep marine strike-slip basin along the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Tectonics, 18, 129147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okut, M., Dermirhan, M. & Köse, Z. (1978) Kütahya Hi Emet-Simav ilçeleri kaolen zuhurlan ve dolaylanmn jeoloji raporu. MTA Raport No. 6309 (in Turkish, unpublished).Google Scholar
Parry, W.T., Ballantyne, J.M. & Jacobs, D.C. (1984) Geochemistry of hydrothermal seriref from Roosevelt Hot Springs and the Tintic and Santa Rita porphyry copper systems. Economic Geology, 79, 7286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paterson, E. & Swaffield, R. (1987) Thermal analysis. Pp. 99132 in: A Handbook of Determinative Methods in Clay Mineralogy (Wilson, M.J., editor). Chapman & Hall, London, 308 pp.Google Scholar
Poncelet, G.M. & Brindley, G.W. (1967) Experimental formation of kaolinite from montmorillonite at low-temperatures. American Mineralogist, 52, 11611173.Google Scholar
Rask, J.H., Bryndzia, L.T., Branusdorf, N.R. & Murray, T.E. (1997) Smectite illitization in Pliocene-age Gulf of Mexicao mudrocks. Clays and Clay Minerals, 45, 99109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sayăn, Ş.A. (1984) The geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of the Yeniçağa kaolinite deposit and other similar deposits in western Turkey, PhD thesis, London University (unpublished).Google Scholar
Sayăn, Ş.A. (1997) Eriklialan sărtă (Gönen) civarănda gelişen tipik hidrotermal kaolen oluşumlan. VIII Ulusal Kil Sempozyumu bildiriler kitabi, 3-14, Kütahya.Google Scholar
Sayăn, Ş.A. (2001) Sorkun yaylasă (Ankara-Güdül) hidrotermal kaolen oluşumlară. 10. Ulusal Kil Sempozyumu, Konya, 235-242.Google Scholar
Sayăn, Ş.A. (2007) Origin of kaolin deposits: evidence from the Hisarcăk (Emet-Kütahya) deposits, western Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 16, 7796.Google Scholar
Schwertmann, U. (1993) Relation between iron oxides, soil color, and soil formation. Pp. 5169 in: Soil Color (Bigham, J.M. and Ciolkosz, E.J., editors). Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
Şengör, A.M.C. & Yălmaz, Y. (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics, 75, 181241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Şengör, A.M.C., Görür, N. & Şaroğlu, F. (1985) Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. Pp. 227264 in: Strike-slip Faulting and Basin Formation and Sedimentation (Biddle, K.T. and Christie-Blick, N., editors). Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seyhan, I. (1978) Türkiye kaolen yataklan ile hidrotermal cevherler arasmda görülen ilişkiler. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi, 4, 2131, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
Srasra, E., Bergaya, F. & Fripiat, J.J. (1994) Infrared spectroscopy study of tetrahedral and octahedral substitutions in an interstratified illite-smectite clay. Clays and Clay Minerals, 42, 237241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uchman, B., Erdoğan, B. & Güngör, T. (2000) Trace fossil assemblages and age of the porphyroid-bearing metasandstones in the Sandikli region. International Earth Sciences Colloquium on the Aegean Region Abstract, Izmir, p.78.Google Scholar
Van der Marel, H.W. & Beutelspacher, H. (1976) Atlas of IR Spectroscopy of Clay Minerals and their Admixtures. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 396 pp.Google Scholar
Velde, B. (1985) Clay Minerals. A Physico-Chemical Explanation of Their Occurrence. Developments in Sedimentology, 40, Elsevier, New York, 427 pp.Google Scholar
Weaver, C.E. (1989) Clays, Muds, and Shales. Developments in Sedimentology, 44, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 819 pp.Google Scholar
Wilson, M.J. (1987) X-ray powder diffraction methods. Pp. 2698 in: A Handbook of Determinative Methods in Clay Mineralogy (Wilson, M.J., editor). Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
Yuan, J. & Murray, H.H. (1993) Mineralogical and physical properties of the Maoming kaolin from Guangdong province, south China. Pp. 249259 in: Kaolin Genesis and Utilization (Murray, H.H., Bundy, W.M. & Harvey, C.C., editors). The Clay Minerals Society, Boulder, Colorado, USA.Google Scholar
Ziegler, K. (2006) Clay minerals of the Permian Rotliegend Group in the North Sea and adjacent areas. Clay Minerals, 41, 355393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the Taşoluk kaolinite deposits in pre-Early Cambrian metamorphites and Neogene volcanites of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the Taşoluk kaolinite deposits in pre-Early Cambrian metamorphites and Neogene volcanites of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the Taşoluk kaolinite deposits in pre-Early Cambrian metamorphites and Neogene volcanites of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *