Published online by Cambridge University Press: 17 February 2009
Social critics and intellectuals since Sir Thomas More have subjected growing urban industrial centres to sweeping criticism. Much of city planning in the West is characterised by reassertion of rural values and rural self-sufficiency. The anti-city approach often takes the form of ‘planning Utopian communities in the country, free from the “excesses of urbanism.” However, in an industrialising country like China a different theme underlies the view of country-city relations. In predominantly rural China, and in the U.S.S.R. during early years of industrialisation, the emphasis of city planning shifts to the need to bring cities and industry to the land. The aim has been to spread industrial values and techniques to rural areas.
3 During the Watts explosion in Los Angeles, summer 1965, a white police officei, Harmon, stationed in the area remarked that the police dominate positions of authority in the ghettoes of large cities. The police officer is often the only representative of urban authority the citizens ever encounter, he observed. This appears true for large cities everywhere that do not make an attempt to rectify the problem.
4 Shao-chi, Liu et al. , “The City of Tientsin Proclaims Changes in District and Street Organisational Forms,”Urban Policies of New Democratism (Hong Kong: New Democrat Press, 1949), pp. 49–50Google Scholar.
5 “Fulfil the Great Task of Setting Up Urban People's Communes in Shanghai,“ Liberation Daily, 05 14, 1960, SCMP No. 2277Google Scholar.
6 “Strengthen the Organisational Work of Urban Residents,” Kuang-ming Daily, January 3, 1955, p. 1.
8 Ch'eng-chih, Shih, Urban Commune Experiments in Communist China, EC 28 (Hong Kong: Union Research Institute, 1962), pp. 29–30Google Scholar.
9 “Questions Concerning Establishment of People's Communes in Urban Areas,” Chiao-hsueh yu Yen-chiu (Teaching and Research), 11 (11 4, 1958), ECMM No. 163Google Scholar.
10 “Discussions on Several Problems Concerning Formation of People's Communes in Urban Areas,” Amoy Daily, 10 9, 1958, SCMP No. 1957, pp. 16–20Google Scholar.
11 “More on the Question of Setting Up Urban People's Communes,” Honan Daily, 01 19, 1959, SCMP No. 1965Google Scholar.
13 Before 1949 China had only 13,500 miles of railway track, less than half of which was in operation. The Peking-Hankow and Lunghai lines which crossed at Chengchow were the two main lines: Adler, Solomon, The Chinese Economy (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1957), p. 11Google Scholar. Before 1949 Chengchow had only one cotton mill with 100 looms and 5,000 spindles (half the number in the province) and only two flour mills: Hung, K., “Industrial Planning,” Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER), 10 1, 1959, p. 545Google Scholar.
15 White, Theodore, Thunder Out of China (New York: William Sloane Associates, 1961), p. 170Google Scholar.
17 Wesson, Robert, Soviet Communes (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1963), pp. 208–209Google Scholar.
18 Mao Tse-tung.
19 Red Flag—A City People's Commune.”
20 “Mosque Street” is named for the people of Hui nationality, traditionally Moslems, who inhabit the street.
21 “The City of Chengchow Sets Up the Red Flag People's Communes,” Books on the People's Communes (Chengchow:Honan People's Publishing House, 1960) 5, p. 13Google Scholar.
22 “Red Flag—A City People's Commune.”
24 “How Was the Chengchow Textile Machinery Factory People's Commune Set Up?” Lun Jen-min Kung-she (On the People's Communes) (Peking: China Youth Publishing House, 1958), p. 168Google Scholar.
25 These three institutional factors were taken from article, Alice Rossi's “Equality Between Sexes,” Daedalus, 93 (Spring 1964), pp. 607–652Google Scholar. One might compare her interesting formulation of ways to implement equality between the sexes in America with the attempt in China during the commune movement.
26 “The Birth of an Urban People's Commune,” Kuang-ming Daily, October 16, 1958.
28 “More on the Question of Setting Up Urban People's Communes.”
31 “Eisenhuttenstadt,” Journal of Town Planning Institute (Britain), 49, 11 1963Google Scholar. Jane Jacobs suggested that a neighbourhood of 5,000, the ideal size in orthodox planning theory, although sufficiently large to populate an elementary school and to support a community centre and shopping areas, is too small to be an area of self-government. She feels a neighbourhood should support an organ of self-government: The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1963), pp. 114–117Google Scholar.
32 “More on the Question …”
34 Snow, The Other Side of The River.
36 Peking Review, February 22, 1963.
37 “Adjustment of Workers' Housing, Revolution in Urban Social Life,” NCNA, 10 22, 1958, SCMP No. 1882, pp. 5–6Google Scholar.
39 “Red Flag—A City People's Commune.”
40 “The City of Chengchow Sets Up the Red Flag People's Commune,” Books on the People's Communes, p. 3.
41 “The Birth of an Urban People's Commune,” Kuang-ming Daily, October 16, 1958.
45 “Red Flag‘—A City People's Commune,” p. 9.
46 Snow, The Other Side of the River.
49 People's Daily, March 11, 1961.
51 People's Daily, January 27, 1961.
52 “The City of Chengchow Sets Up the Red Flag People's Commune.”
54 “Red Flag‘—A City People's Commune.”
55 “Report on Urban Community Mess Halls with Recommendations Concerning Their Overhaul,” Tientsin Daily, 06 10, 1960, SCMP No. 2299Google Scholar.
56 “Red Flag—A City People's Commune.”
58 “Red Flag—A City People's Commune.”
61 “Red Flag—A City People's Commune.”
63 Djordje Bogojevic, March 1959, as appears in Lethbridge.
64 Edgar Snow, The Other Side of the River.
65 CNA No. 382.
66 People's Daily, April 7, 1960. Neighbourhood service stations were mobile, ranerrands and acted almost as household help. Livelihood service stations were fixed and resembled our suburban shopping centres.
67 “Red Flag—A City People's Commune.”
70 “Red Flag—A City People's Commune.”
71 Lethbridge, China's Urban Communes.
72 Snow, The Other Side of the River.
74 CNA No. 332.
75 People's Daily, May 6, 1960.
77 People's Daily, April 14, 1960, p. 2.
78 People's Daily, June 5, 1960, p. 7.
87 Wesson, Soviet Communes, esp. Chap. 6, “Organisation.”
89 Bendix, Reinhard, Work and Authority in Industry (New York: John Wiley & Sons), pp. 377–378Google Scholar.
90 “The City of Chengchow Sets Up the Red Flag People's Communes.”
91 People's Daily, April 7, 1960.