To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Objectives: To establish the prevalence of coronary arterial abnormalities in mid-trimester fetuses with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, and whether their presence correlates with right ventricular morphology. Background: The presence of coronary arterial fistulas significantly alters the surgical options and prognosis for patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. The lesion can reliably be diagnosed using fetal echocardiography, and further definition of the prognosis is important for counselling parents. Methods: We examined the hearts of 39 pathological specimens diagnosed during fetal life, 3 of whom died postnatally. Coronary arterial abnormalities were defined as non-connection of the left or right coronary arteries to the aorta, ostial stenosis, marked tortuosity, dilation, thickening or abnormal myocardial branching. Mild tortuosity, or myocardial bridging, were considered normal. We measured the dimensions of the tricuspid valve along with the inlet and outlet portions of the ventricles. Ebstein's malformation, tricuspid valvar dysplasia, and the presence or absence of the infundibulum, were especially noted. We examined also 12 normal hearts as controls. Results: Coronary arterial abnormalities were found in 14/39 (36%). The dimensions of the right ventricle and tricuspid valves, and the gestational ages of the fetuses, were compared for these 14 with the 25 having no abnormalities using independent t-tests. The gestational ages were similar, 21.9 vs 21.1 weeks. The mean dimensions of the tricuspid valve, median z-scores, and right ventricle were smaller, 2.9 vs 7.2 mm; p < 0.002; −4.46 vs 0.23; p < 0.03; and 6.9 vs 13.7 mm; p < 0.002, for those with coronary arterial abnormalities. Ebstein's malformation, or dysplasia of the tricuspid valve, was present in 4 of 14 with, vs 15 of 25 without, coronary arterial abnormalities. A patent infundibulum was noted in 34 of 39 specimens. Conclusions: Mid-trimester fetuses with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum already exhibit coronary arterial abnormalities, with a prevalence of 36%. The presence of a patent infundibulum confirms that atresia of the pulmonary valve is an acquired process. Coronary arterial abnormalities are seen in 50% of those with hypoplastic right ventricles, but less frequently in the presence of well developed ventricles. This is important information for those involved in counselling parents.
Introduction: There is limited data on medium to long-term outcome, and the morbidity and mortality associated with the implantation, of pulmonary arterial stents. Purpose: To assess changes in morbidity and mortality over the last two decades. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients stented between September, 1989 and July, 2001. Results: We implanted 664 Palmaz stents in 338 patients. The overall number included 229 patients who had undergone repair of tetralogy of Fallot, in whom 468 stents were implanted, 61 patients with congenital stenosis of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, in whom we placed 115 stents, 16 patients after an arterial switch operation who had 38 stents, and 32 patients after the Fontan operation who had 43 stents implanted. The mean age was 12.2 years, and the mean weight was 38 kg. The mean systolic pressure gradient decreased from 41 to 8.7 mmHg, the mean diameter of the stented vessel increased from 5.4 to 11.2 mm, and the ratio of right ventricular to femoral arterial pressure decreased from 0.66 to 0.45, each of these being significant at the level of p being less than 0.01. At a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the mean gradient was 20 mmHg, the mean ratio of pressure between right ventricle and femoral artery was 0.5, and mean luminal diameter was 9.3 mm. Complications included migration of the stent in 8 patients, and pulmonary edema, hemoptysis and death in 5 patients each. There has been no mortality or morbidity since July of 1997. Technical changes include conservative serial dilations in congenital pulmonary arterial stenosis, avoidance of over-dilation, and simultaneous implantation of stents in the right and left pulmonary arteries in those with systemic pulmonary arterial pressure. Technological advances included shorter stents, improved balloon profiles, and central inflation of the stents. Conclusions: Modification of stenting practices, and increased experience of the operators over the last two decades, has virtually abolished any morbidity or mortality associated with the implantation of stents for congenital or postoperative pulmonary arterial stenoses.
Objectives: We have compared mortality and risk factors for late deaths in patients with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing surgical repair in 1972 and 1982 in a Japanese multicentric study, examining in particular the impact of time of repair. Background: There is limited information on the effect that time of repair, and our constantly changing approach to it, has on late outcome in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Methods: We analysed the Japanese registry of deaths occurring after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. We studied two postoperative 1-year cohorts of survivors of surgery performed in 12 centers. Of the patients, 122, aged 29 ± 12 years, had undergone repair in 1972, their age at repair being 9.6 years. An additional 186 patients, aged 23 ± 8.7 years, had been repaired in 1982 at the age of 7.7 years. Results: Annual mortality, as judged per 100,000 population of patients with tetralogy of Fallot, declined from 0.387 in 1972 to 0.196 in 1982. Significant differences were deaths following surgery (27% vs. 13%, p < 0.001), patching of the subpulmonary outflow tract (48% vs. 89%, p < 0.001), and transjunctional patching (13% vs. 63%, p < 0.001). Late death was observed in 6 vs. 3 patients (9/308, 2.9%). The actuarial rate of survival calculated over 14 years was 97% vs. 98%. Reoperation was performed in 5 vs. 9 patients (14/308, 4.5%). Risk factors for late death were age at repair (p = 0.01), and history of reoperation (p < 0.001). Transjunctional patching (p = 0.01) proved to be associated with late mortality only in patients repaired in 1972. Conclusions: Late survival was excellent, with a low incidence of reoperations in both groups of patients. The era of repair has a big influence on total and operative mortality, but has only a small impact on late mortality. Ongoing analysis of follow-up will possibly reveal subsequent changes with time.
A number of cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure. Genetic polymorphisms of several cytokine genes are known to result in altered gene expression, enabling us to characterize patients as "high" or "low" producers of specific cytokines. We speculate that the cytokine genotypes for a population of children who underwent heart transplantation for end-stage ventricular failure due to cardiomyopathy or congenital heart disease would be enriched for "high producers" of pro-inflammatory cytokines and "low producers" of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Methods: Cytokine genotyping was performed for the following cytokines on 94 transplanted children using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific technique: tumor necrosis factor-α (−308), interleukin 10 (−1082, −819, −592), interleukin 6 (−174), transforming growth factor-β1(codons 10 & 25), and interferon-γ (+874). Patients with ventricular failure after transplantation for dilated cardiomyopathy, numbering 37, or for congenital heart disease, numbering 34, were compared to 15 children transplanted for structural disease, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, without ventricular failure, and to data from healthy children. An additional 8 children with restrictive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were also studied. Results: No differences in genotypic distribution were seen between the groups, and all patients were comparable to genotypic distributions as assessed from published normal data. Conclusion: No evidence is found to support the hypothesis that these polymorphisms for cytokine genes influence progression to end-stage heart failure in children undergoing transplantation because of cardiomyopathy or congenital heart disease.
Occlusion using coils is now the treatment of choice for closure of the patent arterial duct. The DuctOcclud (pfm AG, Cologne, Germany) device is a relatively new retrievable coil for such trans-catheter closure. This study expands on previously reported experience with this device, summarizes the advantages of the device, and compares trans-pulmonary and trans-aortic delivery in 47 patients. There were 27 females. The mean, and median, ages were 4.6, and 2.85 years, respectively. The youngest patient was aged 9 months, weighing 7 kg. A trans-aortic delivery was used in 41 cases, and a trans-pulmonary approach in 6 cases. Of the 47 procedures, 45 (96%) were successful at the first attempt. The other two patients were treated successfully at the second attempt, giving a 100% rate of success. The technical characteristics of the coil allowed for its repeated maneuvering until an optimal position was obtained prior to release. Closure was confirmed by lack of ductal flow by echo-doppler on follow- up echocardiography. No short- or long-term complications of the procedure were noted in any of the patients. We conclude that the DuctOcclud device is an effective and safe method for closure of the small-tomoderately patent arterial duct. In a large proportion of patients, trans-aortic delivery is the preferred approach.
Balloon angioplasty is now the elective technique for relief of aortic recoarctation, since it has low mortality, low morbidity, and good results at follow-up. Some concern exists concerning the possible increased risk in young children. To investigate such age-related aspects, we examined 58 children undergoing consecutive balloon angioplasty for postsurgical recoarctation. Of the children, 30 were younger and 28 older than 1 year. Recoarctation was more frequent with ventricular septal defect or other cardiac anomalies (p < 0.001). Systolic hypertension was present in 70% of children aged less than 1 year, but in only 32% of those older than 1 year (p < 0.001). The initial gradient was inversely related with the age at dilation (r = −0.28, p < 0.05), and correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.81, p < 0.01). The procedure was successful in 87% of children older than, and 86% of those under 1 year. Age was not related with residual gradient, nor with the percentage increase of diameter of the site of stenosis. After balloon angioplasty, systolic hypertension was still present in 37% of children younger than 1 year, and in 25% of those older than 1 year (p < 0.05). Three complications occurred in children younger than 1 year, and 6 in those older (p < 0.05). Our results show, first, that recoarctation occurs earlier in the setting of complex disease, second that children suffering recoarctation at a younger age are more likely to be hypertensive, either before or after balloon angioplasty, third, that balloon angioplasty has the same rate of success in children below or above the age of one year, although the procedure still carries a not negligible risk. Finally, the procedure does not carry a higher risk for those children below the age of 1 year.
Objective: To discuss the need for continuing cardiac surveillance in adults with hemodynamically insignificant congenital cardiac disease. Methods: In 82 patients with mild congenital cardiac malformations, aged from 17 to 32 years, we investigated the subjective health status, the health-related quality of life, any difficulties encountered in daily life, the regularity of follow-up, current diagnosis, and antibiotic prophylaxis. Results: The subjective health status, and the health-related quality of life, did not differ from those of the general population. Nevertheless, patients experienced unnecessary difficulties with choice of sport, obtaining insurance cover, and education. After clinical re-evaluation, diagnosis and antibiotic regimes had to be changed in 9 patients (11%). Conclusions: Patients with a mild congenital cardiac malformation consider themselves to be in good health. So as to fine tune the diagnosis, and update the information supplied to the patients, we suggest that at least a cardiological assessment be carried out at the age of 16 to 18 years. In this way, patients might be protected from unnecessary difficulties, such as restrictions for sport or the charging of unjustifiably high rates for insurance.
Pulmonary arterial and intracranial calcifications are rarely found in children. A female infant, the recipient of a twin–twin transfusion syndrome was found, by ultrasound and computed tomography, to have both pulmonary arterial and intracerebral calcification. A rare condition, termed idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy, is the likely cause. This condition carries a poor prognosis and is usually fatal.
We present a young infant with rapidly progressive idiopathic dilation of the right atrium, complicated by symptomatic and dynamic obstruction of the airways secondary to proximal obstruction which was reversed subsequent to surgical reduction of the right atrium. We discuss the surgical implications of the distorted cardiac anatomy, along with post-operative complications, which included refractory arrhythmias.
Supraventricular tachycardia is a documented feature of Marfan syndrome. The safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in this population of patients, however, has not been reported. We report on the successful use of radiofrequency ablation utilizing a trans-septal approach for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia produced by an accessory muscular atrioventricular connection in a patient with Marfan syndrome.
A 3-year-old boy developed acute obstruction of a left modified Blalock-Taussig shunt following selective power injection of contrast in the shunt. Balloon dilation was ineffective due to rapid recoil of the narrowed segment, but implantation of a stent effectively abolished the obstruction. The obstruction itself may have been produced by an intimal flap caused by the power injection.