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A 14-year-old girl admitted for corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot was found to have pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on pre-operative evaluation. In anticipation of a complicated postoperative course, percutaneous closure of the pulmonary arteriovenous malformations was undertaken first followed by a successful surgical outcome. Importance of this rare association and its clinical implication is hereby highlighted.
Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors was found recently to be an effective treatment for manifestations of Tuberous sclerosis complex, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Most cases with Cardiac rhabdomyoma treated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors to date were diagnosed with Tuberous sclerosis. We report a case of cardiac rhabdomyoma and severe right ventricular outflow obstruction in a baby with negative genetics for Tuberous sclerosis that responded rapidly to Sirolimus.
Regular evaluation of physical capacity takes a crucial part in long-term follow-up in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study aims to examine the accuracy of self-estimated exercise capacity compared to objective assessments by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with CHD of various complexity.
We conducted a single centre, cross-sectional study with retrospective analysis on 382 patients aged 8–68 years with various CHD who completed cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Peak oxygen uptake was measured. Additionally, questionnaires covering self-estimation of exercise capacity were completed. Peak oxygen uptake was compared to patient’s self-estimated exercise capacity with focus on differences between complex and non-complex defects.
Peak oxygen uptake was 25.5 ± 7.9 ml/minute/kg, corresponding to 75.1 ± 18.8% of age- and sex-specific reference values. Higher values of peak oxygen uptake were seen in patients with higher subjective rating of exercise capacity. However, oxygen uptake in patients rating their exercise capacity as good (mean oxygen uptake 78.5 ± 1.6%) or very good (mean oxygen uptake 84.8 ± 4.8%) was on average still reduced compared to normal. In patients with non-complex cardiac defects, we saw a significant correlation between peak oxygen uptake and self-estimated exercise capacity (spearman-rho −0.30, p < 0.001), whereas in patients with complex cardiac defects, no correlation was found (spearman-rho −0.11, p < 0.255).
The mismatch between self-estimated and objectively assessed exercise capacity is most prominent in patients with complex CHD.
Registration number at Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin Ethics Committee: EA2/106/14.
This study aimed to evaluate the early outcomes of patients who underwent a concomitant therapeutic maze procedure for congenital heart surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Between 2019 and 2020, eight patients underwent surgical cryoablation by using the same type of cryoablation probe.
Three patients had atrial flutter, two had Wolf–Parkinson–White syndrome, two intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia, and one had atrial fibrillation. Four patients underwent electrophysiological study. Preoperatively, one patient was on 3, two were on 2, five were on 1 antiarrhythmic drug. Six patients underwent right atrial maze and two underwent bilateral atrial maze. Five out of six right atrial maze patients underwent right atrial reduction. Nine different lesion sets were used. Some of the lesions were combined and applied as one lesion. In Ebstein’s anomaly patients, the lesion from coronary sinus to displaced tricuspid annulus was delicately performed. The single ventricle patient with heterotaxy had junctional rhythm at the time of discharge and was the only patient who experienced atrial extrasystoles 2 months after discharge. Seven of the eight patients were on sinus rhythm. No patient needed permanent pacemaker placement.
Cryomaze procedure can be applied in congenital heart diseases with acceptable arrhythmia-free rates by selecting the appropriate materials and suitable lesion sets. The application of cryomaze in heterotaxy patients can be challenging due to differences in the conduction system and complex anatomy. Consensus with the electrophysiology team about the choice of the right–left or biatrial maze procedure is mandatory for operational success.
An increased incidence of CHD has been noted in twin gestations and in infants conceived using assisted reproductive technologies. However, CHD in these populations remains understudied and the mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain unclear. We present the case of twins conceived via in vitro fertilisation both with Tetralogy of Fallot and additional cardiac and extracardiac malformations.
Correction of tetralogy of Fallot during infancy usually eliminates the risks associated with general anaesthesia. In rare cases of uncorrected defects persisting into adulthood, anaesthetic management during non-cardiac surgery may therefore be challenging. We describe the use of continuous spinal anaesthesia to successfully circumvent the operative risk of major abdominal surgery in an adult patient with uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot.
We report the case of a 14-year-old female who had tetralogy of Fallot along with anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta with co-dominant double aortic arch forming a complete vascular ring compressing the oesophagus along with a left main coronary artery to right ventricular outflow tract fistula. She underwent surgical correction without conduit placement.
This is a case of a 37-year-old woman with uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot with the absence of pulmonary valve and history of heart murmur in childhood who did not have a medical approach. At 29 years of age she started with dyspnoea that in the last 7 months progressed to be of small effort and also referred increase of the abdominal perimeter.