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A 14-year-old girl admitted for corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot was found to have pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on pre-operative evaluation. In anticipation of a complicated postoperative course, percutaneous closure of the pulmonary arteriovenous malformations was undertaken first followed by a successful surgical outcome. Importance of this rare association and its clinical implication is hereby highlighted.
Although surgery is the standard treatment for native coarctation in neonates, it carries a high risk of complications. Percutaneous balloon angioplasty may be considered as an alternative treatment. The materials used in the intervention should be selected carefully to reduce complications. We recommended the use of non-compliant balloons in risky babies. They are more effective in the treatment of strick stenosis than compliant balloons.
Tricuspid valve atresia with severe pulmonary stenosis is one of the common cyanotic diseases in neonate. Child can succumb due to profound cyanosis and arterial hypoxaemia after closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Evolving procedure of right ventricular outflow tract stenting may be considered as a palliative procedure in such vulnerable group, destined for a later definitive management. The right ventricular outflow tract stenting is described essentially for tetralogy of Fallot physiology with a catheter course across tricuspid valve. We describe a case of successful right ventricular outflow tract stenting in a 5-day-old symptomatic neonate. We discuss the possible routes and the tips to facilitate right ventricular outflow tract stenting in such a case. This happens to be the first reported case description with successful stenting of neonate with tricuspid atresia with critical pulmonic stenosis.
Ventricular septal defect is the most common type of CHD, and transcatheter ventricular septal defect closure has been shown to be an alternative to surgical closure with acceptable mortality and morbidity as well as encouraging results. Short-term and mid-term follow-ups have indicated the safety and efficacy of transcatheter closure, but long-term follow-up results were rare. In this report, we first found that aortic regurgitation occurred in patients 9–12 years following transcatheter closure and regurgitation were gradually increased. The findings indicate that the long-term outcome of transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect may not be as satisfied as expected.
A 29-month-old girl had idiopathic massive pericardial effusion for over 6 months. Lymphangiography was performed for chronic and recurrent pericardial effusion and pulmonary lymphangiectasia, suspected based on CT findings. Magnetic resonance lymphangiography revealed chylolymphatic reflux from a tortuously dilated thoracic duct in the mediastinum to the pericardial space, suggesting primary chylopericardium with lymphangiectasia. Pericardial effusion resolved immediately after thoracic duct embolisation at the lower thoracic level. However, pericardial effusion recurred after 5 months, which resolved after additional embolisation of the abnormal lymphatic collateral vessels from the remnant upper thoracic duct. Here, we report an unusual case with chylous massive pericardial effusion diagnosed by magnetic resonance lymphangiography and treated with percutaneous embolisation.
We report a case of Figulla-II Occlutech septal occluder malposition with residual shunt at posteriosuperior margin of an atrial septal defect. Improvising its bioptome type delivery cable, same system was used to recapture the device and redeploy it successfully. This report highlights a potential malfunction of Figulla-II Occlutech disc and the advantage of its delivery system for retrieval of the device.
Patients with Williams syndrome often present with abnormalities of the vascular wall of the aorta and/or the pulmonary artery. Surgery may result in restenosis of the affected vessel. Herein, we report a case of an infant with multiple recurrences of aortic coarctation successfully treated with Zotarolimus drug-eluting stent.
Aortopulmonary window is a rare cardiac defect, and early management with surgery or transcatheter closure is lifesaving. Here, a 9-month-old patient, who underwent a successful device closure with additional size-Amplatzer duct occlude, is presented to make emphasis that it may be considered as the device of choice for defects in close proximity to aortic valve and/or coronary ostium.
Patent ductus arteriosus is the most common cardiovascular abnormality in premature infants. With newly available percutaneous devices, centres are reporting high rates of success and favourable safety profiles with percutaneous closure of haemodynamically significant ductus arteriosi in infants under 1000 g. We report the case of a 5-week-old, previous 25-week gestation, 1200-g infant who underwent successful percutaneous closure of a ductus arteriosus with a Medtronic Microvascular Plug but who developed late-term coarctation from the device. This case should prompt practitioners to consider the need and timing of follow-up echocardiograms in this population and sheds light on a newly reported long-term complication of device closure in premature infants.
A 7-month-old infant presented with bilateral blocked cavo-pulmonary anastomosis within 2 months of surgery. Due to extreme haemodynamic instability, surgical options were abandoned and rescue intervention from left jugular line was planned. Acute thrombosis of the left-sided Glenn was noted with significant anastomotic narrowing. Successful rescue thrombolysis was done using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Alteplase) along with balloon dilatation of the attenuated segments.
Congenital right pulmonary artery to left atrium fistula is rare cause of cyanosis. It is an abnormal fistulous connection between right pulmonary artery and left atrium representing a direct communication between a pulmonary artery and vein with absence of capillary network connecting between these two. Cardiovascular examination usually remains normal. High index of suspicion on clinical examination and subsequent transthoracic echocardiography is needed to suspect this entity. Bubble contrast echocardiography usually confirms the diagnosis. Cardiac catheterization is used as diagnostic as well as therapeutic modality. Cardiac catheterization is useful in classifying the fistula and helps in transcatheter closure by embolization devices. Choice of devices depends on type of fistula, vascular access, and presence of atrial communication. Here, we are reporting 8-month-old girl presenting with type 2 right pulmonary artery to left atrium fistula, which underwent successful transcatheter closure by 6 mm/4 mm duct occluder (Heart R, Lifetech Scientific, Shenzhen, China). Early closure in this young age will prevent complications of cyanosis. The technical consideration, possible access, and closure techniques are discussed in this young infant.
A child undergoing routine transcatheter patent arterial duct closure developed severe transient ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram (Pardee waves) while the aortic retention skirt of the Amplatzer™ Duct Occluder was pulled against the duct orifice. The occluder was then released, and the delivery system was pulled back to inferior caval vein which led to electrocardiogram normalisation. Aortic root angiography showed a single coronary artery originating from the right sinus of Valsalva with the left coronary stem wedged behind the posterior aspect of the right ventricular outflow tract. We believe that the left coronary artery was compressed while applying tension on the occluder delivery system.
A 10-year-old female with heterotaxy-asplenia and complex CHD developed pulmonary arteriovenous malformations with associated cyanosis after Fontan completion. She underwent orthotopic heart transplantation, but her pulmonary arteriovenous malformations persisted with progressive worsening cyanosis. Elective transcatheter left pulmonary artery embolisation was performed 2 years post-transplant, which successfully normalised her oxygen saturation without a significant increase in pulmonary artery pressure.
Cardiac catheterisation in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may reveal new information leading to modification of a therapeutic plan and correction of newly recognised or residual lesions. Complications associated with cardiac catheterisation during ECMO are not uncommon and often related to the access site. We report a straightforward technique for accessing the ECMO circuit to perform an emergent cardiac catheterisation in two patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome decompensated after Norwood I, due to presumed systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt obstruction.
We report on a 12-year-old girl with Ebstein’s anomaly after a unidirectional Glenn procedure with surgical ligation of the proximal right pulmonary artery, who suffered from significant central cyanosis caused by multiple arterio-venous fistulas in the right lung. The continuity between the right pulmonary artery and the pulmonary trunk was restored with the use of radiofrequency perforation and consecutive covered stent implantation.
A new approach was used in the percutaneous treatment of two patients with severe recoarctation involving the origin of the left subclavian artery. A tiny handmade fenestration was created in a NuMED-covered Cheatham-platinum stent before its implantation to avoid left subclavian artery occlusion. The stent placement was performed using a two-guidewire technique in which the different stiffness helped a proper positioning of the stent. After the stent deployment, the fenestration was enlarged performing a balloon angioplasty to improve flow in left subclavian artery.
Femoral vein access is the first choice for percutaneous atrial septal defect closure, and when it cannot be used due to anatomic reasons, the alternative sites should be considered, frequently increasing the complexity of the procedure. Here we report the case of a 3-year-old boy, with situs inversus and dextrocardia, electively referred for percutaneous closure of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect. During the procedure, agenesis of the infra-hepatic segment of the inferior caval vein was diagnosed, and no double inferior caval vein or right superior caval vein were identified by ultrasound or angiography. Therefore, we opted to perform the procedure through the left internal jugular vein, with fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Catheters were navigated through a hydrophilic guidewire, and a Stiff guidewire was positioned in the left ventricle for better support. An Amplatzer septa occluder 19 was successfully deployed without major difficulties and the patient was discharged after 24 hours in good clinical condition. Percutaneous atrial septal defect closure through alternative access sites, especially in the presence of situs inversus, may pose significant challenges to the interventional team. In this case, the left internal jugular vein has shown to be a feasible option, allowing the navigation and manipulation of devices without complications. Provided the expertise of the interventional team, and awareness of the risks involved, alternative access sites can be successfully used for paediatric structural interventions.
A percutaneous transcatheter balloon dilation of a pulmonary venous pathway obstruction was successfully performed in a 40-year-old patient after a Mustard procedure. During the procedure, real-time three-dimensional trans-oesophageal echocardiography demonstrated the morphology of the obstruction. Our case highlights the usefulness of real-time three-dimensional trans-oesophageal echocardiography as a guide for transcatheter intervention in the increasing number of adults with CHD.
We describe two cases of spontaneous embolisation and successful retrieval of ceramic-coated patent arterial duct devices. In both, the device embolised to the descending aorta in the absence of pulmonary hypertension and despite optimum placement. We have discussed possible mechanisms for embolisation in these patients and suggested alternative methods for device retrieval. Based on this limited experience, we conclude that for tubular ducts, ceramic-coated devices should be oversized to form a tighter waist or alternate devices may be considered.