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Although rare, children with active coronavirus disease 2019 are at risk of developing malignant arrhythmia. Herein, we present the first paediatric case of refractory ventricular tachycardia from acute fulminant myocarditis secondary to acute COVID-19 infection. This 5-year-old boy required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, but made a complete recovery without significant morbidity.
We report a case of a pseudoaneurysm in the sinus of Valsalva, secondary to infective endocarditis in a child with trisomy 21. The patient had a history of subaortic stenosis, bicuspid aortic valve, and ventricular septal defect. Patch closure of the ostium of the pseudoaneurysm and aortic valve replacement was performed. The patient was discharged without severe complications.
We describe an adolescent with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and symptomatic high-grade, second-degree atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker placement. It is difficult to ascertain if these two diagnoses were independent or had a causal relationship though ongoing symptoms were not present prior to the infection. Because of this uncertainty, awareness that rhythm disturbances can be cardiac in origin but also secondary to other aetiologies, such as infection, is warranted.
An 11-year-old male was admitted with cough and fever for the last 4 days and also complained of pain in the right lung for some weeks. The boy did not show any other symptoms and his past medical history was unremarkable as well. The radiologist findings showed an aspect that suggested for echinococcosis.
At first, it was realised the heart intervention. About a 2-month period later, the child underwent another cyst removal in lung. He had begun taking albendazole 5 days before the heart intervention. The therapy was continued until the lung intervention and for 12 weeks post-operatively. The patient had an uneventful recovery and after about 4 years.
Platelet indices are used to evaluate platelet activation and function which change in inflammatory diseases. We hypothesise that platelet indices such as plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width may be more useful as prognostic indicators for myopericarditis in children.
A total of 60 children were included in this study. Group 1 consists of children with myopericarditis, Group 2 is those with respiratory infections, and Group 3 consists of control group children of similar age and gender with the patient groups. Complete blood count parameters, C-reactive protein, and troponin values of the whole study group were recorded. Myopericarditis was diagnosed based on acute chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, heart failure signs, arrhythmia symptoms and ST/T wave change, low voltage, supraventricular tachycardia/ventricular tachycardia on ECG, or elevated troponin T/troponin I levels or functional abnormalities on echocardiography. A comparison of the platelet indices made during diagnosis and 2 weeks after treatment was done for the myopericarditis patients.
There was no statistically significant difference in platelet indicies values. However, the increase in platelets and plateletcrit values after the treatment of myopericarditis was statistically significant. This study pointed out that there was a negative correlation between platelet–plateletcrit values and the troponin I–C-reactive protein.
We found that platelet count and plateletcrit values increased after treatment. This is important as it is the first study in children to investigate the possible role of platelet indications for myopericarditis in children.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic negatively impacted global healthcare. Consequences in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery programmes and mortality of congenital heart patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2) is still to be determined.
To study the COVID-19 pandemic implications in Brazilian Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery programmes.
We conducted a national online survey covering all states that perform Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery from 10 November to 22 November, 2020, using a Google forms questionnaire. We formulated questions related to impact on surgical volume, case-mix, and mortality. Then we asked about short-term post-operative COVID-19 infection and outcomes.
We received responses from 46 centres representing all states where there were a Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery programme and all high-volume centres across the country. All but one centre experienced a significant decrease in surgical volume, and 23.9% of the responders revealed less than one-quarter of volume decrement. On the other hand, in over 70% of the centres, there was a significant surgical volume reduction. In addition to this, there was a shift in case-mix in 41 centres (89.1%) towards more complex cases. More than one-third of the responders revealed increased mortality in 2020 compared to previous years, and 43.5% of the programmes (20 centres) had at least one patient contaminated by SARS-Cov-2, accounting for 48 patients. Mortality in post-operative infected patients was 45.8% (22 patients).
In general, Brazilian Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery programmes were severely affected by decreased surgical volume, unbalanced case-mix towards more complex cases, and increased mortality. Almost half of the programmes related post-operative COVID-19 contamination with high mortality.
Acute rheumatic fever is the most commonly acquired heart disease in developing countries. The most common cardiac presentation is valvular disease. Although some rhythm disturbances may occur during the acute stages of the disease, ventricular tachycardia is extremely rare. Here, a case of acute rheumatic fever with severe endocarditis involving four valves and ventricular tachycardia is presented.
We aimed to examine the literature to determine if both paediatric and adult patients diagnosed with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at a higher risk of poor outcomes if they have the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), compared to those without CHD.
A systematic review was executed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. To identify articles related to COVID-19 and CHD, an extensive literature search was performed on EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, and Global Health databases using keywords and MeSH terms.
A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in this systematic review. Two themes were identified for data extraction: evidence supporting higher risks in CHD patients and evidence against higher risks in CHD patients. After combining the data, there were 99 patients with CHDs out of which 12 required admissions to ICU.
This systematic review suggests that CHD may increase the risk of poor outcomes for those with COVID-19, but also highlights the necessity for more research with larger sample sizes in order to make a more justified conclusion, as the majority of papers that were analysed were case series and case reports. Future research should aim to quantify the risks if possible whilst accounting for various confounding factors such as age and treatment history.
Cardiac hydatid cysts are a rare presentation of hydatid cyst disease in the body, with a reported cardiac involvement rate of <2%. The left ventricle is the most common site of cardiac involvement. Here, we report a patient with a hydatid cyst that ruptured into the pericardium after producing an aneurysm on the right ventricular free wall, appearing as fibrinated fluid and a solid mass lesion in the pericardium. Our aim in this case report was to emphasise that the possibility of a hydatid cyst should not be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pericardial tumours.
Endocarditis of congenital coronary fistulas in the cardiac chambers is rare, especially in the paediatric age group. We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with a fistula from the dilated right coronary artery to the junction of the superior caval vein to the right atrium, complicated by endocarditis. Treatment consisted of 6 weeks of antibiotics and interventional closure of the fistula 3 months later with an Amplatzer vascular plug.
An adolescent male with a recent history of streptococcal pharyngitis presented with severe substernal chest pain, troponin leak, and ST-segment elevation, which are suggestive of acute inferolateral myocardial infarction. The coronary angiogram was normal. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with non-rheumatic streptococcal myocarditis. He was treated with amoxicillin and had excellent recovery. Non-rheumatic streptococcal myocarditis is an important mimic of acute myocardial infarction in young adults.
We report a case of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from a mycotic aortic aneurysm in a child with CHD. The patient previously underwent operations for CHD and had a subarachnoid haemorrhage of unknown cause before the scheduled re-operation. During the re-operation, a sealed rupture of an undiagnosed mycotic ascending aortic aneurysm was identified, and the causative organism was later identified as Streptococcus. A postoperative MRI indicated a partially thrombosed cerebral aneurysm. This case demonstrates that a mycotic aortic aneurysm can be a cause of intracranial haemorrhage in children.
Hydatid cyst is a serious parasitic infection in endemic areas. Cardiac hydatid cyst is not a common presentation, and primary pericardial hydatid cyst is rare. Echocardiography, CT, and MRI are important in diagnosing and locating cardiac echinococcosis. Herein, we present the case of an asymptomatic butcher with primary pericardial hydatid cyst and its successful treatment.
Tricuspid valvectomy is a rare surgical intervention, and knowledge regarding long-term outcome in children is lacking. We report a favourable outcome 11 years after tricuspid valvectomy in early infancy without subsequent surgery or other cardiac interventions. Specific criteria for timing of re-intervention are lacking. Application of adult tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation recommendations is helpful but has limitations.
We present a case of a rare association of infective endocarditis and a coin lesion in the lung caused by Candida albicans. The lesion disappeared after 6 weeks of treatment with 5 mg/kg/day amphotericin B.
Gemella is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria found in the digestive tract of humans. They rarely cause systemic illness but have been recently implicated in several serious infections. We report infective endocarditis caused by Gemella bergeri in a 23-year-old with a bicuspid aortic valve status post-intervention in infancy.
For most patients, adenoviruses cause few acute health concerns and are often self-limiting. Patients who are immunocompromised or immunosuppressed, however, are at risk for disseminated adenovirus and suffer high morbidity and mortality, without well-defined treatment options. We report the case of a 9-month-old boy who was successfully treated for disseminated adenovirus infection with intravenous immunoglobulin and cidofovir 3 months post heart transplant, tailored to serum adenoviral load and clinical response. We emphasise the importance of early identification, monitoring, and a potentially novel treatment in the paediatric cardiac transplant population with disseminated adenovirus infection.
We present a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus gordonii in an 11-year-old girl with Barlow’s mitral valve disease. The differential diagnosis of rheumatic carditis and infective endocarditis was difficult as the patient fulfilled the Jones criteria. Vegetation on the mitral valve which became evident later in course of the disease and positive blood culture allowed diagnosing “definite” infective endocarditis.