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Anorexia nervosa has a prevalence of 0.5–3% in adolescents, placing this population at increased risk of cardiac anomalies including arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, and myocardial dysfunction. Our objective is to describe cardiovascular anomalies observed by tissue Doppler imaging in patients with anorexia nervosa.
We retrospectively reviewed electrocardiogram, Holter, and echocardiography findings in 28 patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa.
Electrocardiogram was abnormal in 71% of patients with sinus bradycardia observed in 57%. Holter confirmed sinus bradycardia without significant pauses. Prolonged QTc, low voltage, and ectopic beats were each seen in 14% of patients. Wenckebach atrioventricular block was observed in one patient. Supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia was not observed. Echocardiography showed structurally normal heart in all patients. Pericardial effusion was seen in 7.1% of patients and left ventricular mass was decreased in 10.7%. Mean ejection fraction was 0.73 and mean fractional shortening was 38.4%. Tissue Doppler imaging revealed systolic or diastolic dysfunction in four patients with e’, a’, and s’ velocities in the lateral and septal basal segments more than two standard deviations below the mean. Two patients had decreased left ventricular mass but no significant difference in disease duration from the group. Basal segment velocities below one standard deviation were also observed in an additional seven patients.
A trend for decreased tissue Doppler imaging velocities was seen in 25.0% of patients, while significant systolic and diastolic dysfunction was seen in 14.3% of patients, associated with a significant reduction in left ventricular mass and independent of disease duration.
Flecainide overdose is associated with an approximately 10% mortality rate. The drug’s slow rate of elimination and high oral bioavailability make successful management extremely challenging. I present the management of a life-threatening flecainide overdose of an infant who had a protracted course due to the exposure to the drug in both the fetal and neonatal periods.
We describe an adolescent with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and symptomatic high-grade, second-degree atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker placement. It is difficult to ascertain if these two diagnoses were independent or had a causal relationship though ongoing symptoms were not present prior to the infection. Because of this uncertainty, awareness that rhythm disturbances can be cardiac in origin but also secondary to other aetiologies, such as infection, is warranted.
Catheter ablation is a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in children. Current improvements in technology have allowed progressive reduction in radiation exposure associated with the procedure. To assess the impact of three-dimensional mapping, we compared acute procedural results collected from the Catheter Ablation with Reduction or Elimination of Fluoroscopy registry to published results from the Prospective Assessment after Pediatric Cardiac Ablation study.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria from the Prospective Assessment after Pediatric Cardiac Ablation study were used as guidelines to select patient data from the Catheter Ablation with Reduction or Elimination of Fluoroscopy registry to compare acute procedural outcomes between cohorts. Outcomes assessed include procedural and fluoroscopy exposure times, success rates of procedure, and complications.
In 786 ablation procedures, targeting 498 accessory pathways and 288 atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia substrates, average procedural time (156.5 versus 206.7 minutes, p < 0.01), and fluoroscopy time (1.2 versus 38.3 minutes, p < 0.01) were significantly shorter in the study group. Success rates for the various substrates were similar except for manifest accessory pathways which had a significantly higher success rate in the study group (96.4% versus 93.0%, p < 0.01). Major complication rates were significantly lower in the study group (0.3% versus 1.6%, p < 0.01).
In a large, multicentre study, three-dimensional systems show favourable improvements in clinical outcomes in children undergoing catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia compared to the traditional fluoroscopic approach. Further improvements are anticipated as technology advances.
Pulmonary hypertension is not the only cause of arterial desaturation in patients with atrial septal defect. Arterial desaturation can also occur with normal pulmonary artery pressure making it mandatory to understand the mechanism to avoid erroneous diagnosis. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate atrial flutter as the cause of arterial desaturation in a patient with large atrial septal defect despite normal pulmonary artery pressure, which was normalised following successful radiofrequency ablation.
The field of electrophysiology (EP) in paediatric cardiology patients and adults with congenital heart disease is complex and rapidly growing. The current recommendations for diagnostic and invasive electrophysiology of the working group for Cardiac Dysrhythmias and Electrophysiology of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology acknowledges the diveristy of European countries and centers. These training recommendations can be fulfilled in a manageable period of time, without compromising the quality of training required to become an expert in the field of paediatric and congenital EP and are for trainees undergoing or having completed accredited paediatric cardiologist fellowship. Three levels of expertise, the training for General paediatric cardiology EP, for non-invasive EP and invasive EP have been defined. This Association for European EP curriculum describes the theoretical and practicsal knowledge in clinical EP; catheter ablation, cardiac implantable electronic devices, inherited arrhythmias and arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart defects for the 3 levels of expertise.
Although implanted cardiac devices improve patients’ physical health, long-term psychosocial effects especially in the paediatric population are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosocial effects of cardiac devices in a paediatric population.
Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire (PedsQoL) was used to evaluate life quality, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale was used to evaluate resilience and Brief Symptom Inventory was used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms in a paediatric population with cardiac devices.
Seventy-one patients were enrolled in the study. Fifty of them (70.5%) had a cardiac pacemaker and 21 of them (29.5%) had implantable cardioverter defibrillator. When compared to the control group both implantable cardioverter defibrillator and pacemaker using patients had lower quality of life (79.5 ± 12.4 versus 86.7 ± 12.1, p = 0.001) but no difference was observed in resilience and psychological pathologies. Age, gender, family size, and education level had no effect on quality of life. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator bearing patients had higher levels of anxiety than pacemaker patients (0.58 versus 0.30 p = 0.045), and implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients who had received shock in the last year had higher levels of somatisation than the group that did not receive device shock (0.17 versus 0.44 p = 0.022).
In conclusion study showed that cardiac devices have negative effects on the psychosocial health of children. Cardiologist working with these patients should be aware of these pathologies and monitor not only physical health but also psychosocial health too.
This study aimed to evaluate the early outcomes of patients who underwent a concomitant therapeutic maze procedure for congenital heart surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Between 2019 and 2020, eight patients underwent surgical cryoablation by using the same type of cryoablation probe.
Three patients had atrial flutter, two had Wolf–Parkinson–White syndrome, two intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia, and one had atrial fibrillation. Four patients underwent electrophysiological study. Preoperatively, one patient was on 3, two were on 2, five were on 1 antiarrhythmic drug. Six patients underwent right atrial maze and two underwent bilateral atrial maze. Five out of six right atrial maze patients underwent right atrial reduction. Nine different lesion sets were used. Some of the lesions were combined and applied as one lesion. In Ebstein’s anomaly patients, the lesion from coronary sinus to displaced tricuspid annulus was delicately performed. The single ventricle patient with heterotaxy had junctional rhythm at the time of discharge and was the only patient who experienced atrial extrasystoles 2 months after discharge. Seven of the eight patients were on sinus rhythm. No patient needed permanent pacemaker placement.
Cryomaze procedure can be applied in congenital heart diseases with acceptable arrhythmia-free rates by selecting the appropriate materials and suitable lesion sets. The application of cryomaze in heterotaxy patients can be challenging due to differences in the conduction system and complex anatomy. Consensus with the electrophysiology team about the choice of the right–left or biatrial maze procedure is mandatory for operational success.
A diagnosis of Brugada pattern in paediatric or adolescent patients is rare. COVID-19 is characterised by fevers and a pro-inflammatory state, which may serve as inciting factors for Brugada pattern. Recently described in two adult patients, we report the first case of Brugada pattern in an adolescent with COVID-19.
Conventional ambulatory heart rhythm monitoring is limited in its ability to provide rapid diagnosis of arrhythmias in athletes participating in water or high-intensity sports. This case report is of a 17-year-old female competitive swimmer who underwent loop recorder implantation with Confirm Rx™ ICM 3500 (Abbott, Minneapolis, MN) to monitor for arrhythmias during swimming. The purpose of this case report is to describe the utility of implantable loop recorders in arrhythmia diagnosis and symptom evaluation in water sport athletes.
A 16-year-old male was admitted to the paediatric ICU with acute onset of vomiting, somnolence, and chest pain, and electrocardiogram showing 2nd degree heart block after ingesting an Aleurites moluccana (Candlenut) seed as a herbal weight loss supplement. Electrocardiogram showed progressively worsening heart block with down-sloping of the ST segments, resembling digoxin toxicity. After 2 days of ICU observation, his symptoms began to improve and eventually resolved. The side effects of herbal supplements are often unknown but by analysing cases such as these, physicians can develop a better understanding of these substances to help guide management.
There has been great concern with the use of radiofrequency ablation in infants since radiofrequency ablation lesions were shown to have a progressing nature in immature myocardium of animals. In this report, we present a 2-month-old infant with life-threatening medically refractory supraventricular tachycardia. Radiofrequency ablation successfully cured arrhythmia; however, late effects of radiofrequency ablation lesions resulted in a progressive mitral valve perforation requiring surgical repair.
A female neonate with in utero selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure presented with bradycardia shortly after birth. Electrocardiography showed severe QT prolongation and second-degree atrioventricular block. Over time QT-times spontaneously normalised and genetic testing did not show mutations associated with long QT syndrome making maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor usage the most likely explanation for the observed severe transient neonatal QT prolongation.
Transvenous pacemaker implantation for sinus node dysfunction in patients with Fontan palliation presents the difficulty of finding suitable pacing tissue and the potential of causing vascular obstruction in a low-flow circuit. We describe a patient who underwent electro-anatomic voltage mapping to guide a transvenous single chamber lead within her Fontan baffle. This highlights the use of advanced mapping technologies for pacemaker implantation in complex cyanotic heart disease.
A 14-year-old girl suddenly developed ventricular tachycardia and severe chest pain during hospitalisation for trauma surgery. CT revealed a needle in the pericardium. Careful interview elicited that she had inserted the needle by herself, and Munchausen syndrome was diagnosed. This is the first report of ventricular tachycardia caused by a foreign body in a patient with Munchausen syndrome.
We report on a 14-year-old boy with focal atrial tachycardia. After failure of catheter ablation and medical therapy he received 2 g omega-3 fatty acid supplementation while waiting on repeat ablation. Focal atrial tachycardia disappeared 4 weeks later and antiarrhythmic therapy was terminated. We discuss the antiarrhythmic effect of omega 3-fatty acids on the autonomous nervous system based upon six 24-hour Holter electrocardiographs.
Some asymptomatic patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome have severe left ventricular dyssynchrony and dysfunction. We describe a patient who was given a diagnosis of Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome in infancy and had a complete response to pharmacologic therapy with flecainide. Our findings suggest that flecainide is a suitable resynchronisation therapy for such infants.
In some patients with Kawasaki disease, a prior myocardial infarction causes ventricular tachycardia in the chronic post-myocardial infarction phase. We report the case of a 41-year-old man with symptomatic and haemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia in whom substrate ablation was performed for the ventricular tachycardia before insertion of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.
Cardiac involvement has been reported in various mucopolysaccharidoses syndromes. Cardiac valve pathology is the most prominent cardiac manifestation of patients with these syndromes. To date, there have been no reports of early childhood onset of high-grade atrioventricular block in patients with Hunter syndrome. We present a case of a 3-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome who was found to have various degrees of atrioventricular block. This case highlights the importance of early routine cardiac screening for conduction abnormalities and close follow-up in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses syndromes.